Mormon Trail AssociationMormon Trail AssociationHistorical Salt Lake City Walking Tour


( Ron and Andersen, 1998)

(Tour Notes: Ron Andersen; from Salt Lake City Underfoot, Utah Historical Quarterly
articles, Deseret News, numerous books and maps, lectures, and interviews.
Proofread and corrected by Randy Dixon, LDS Historical Department.)


Land Ownership in Salt Lake Valley ( 1847 - 1869)

When the first company of Mormon pioneers entered Salt Lake Valley in July 1847, federal legislation extending the national land system to the Mountain West had not yet been enacted. Not until 1869 would they and the thousands who followed them be able to obtain legal title to their land. During this interim period, Mormons formulated under authority of the Church a system of land description that was an adaptation of the rectangular survey they had known in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois.

Brigham Young declared on July 25, 1847, that "no man should buy any land ... but every man should [have] his land measured off to him for city and farming purposes, what he could till. He might till it as he pleased, but he should be industrious and take care of it." Until such time as they would receive their land allotments, the pioneers settled themselves in temporary dwellings and farmed in communal fields. For shelter and protection from the Indians, they constructed a fort where Pioneer Park is located.

On August 2, 1847, Orson Pratt and Henry G. Sherwood began the survey of Great Salt Lake City, beginning at the southeast corner of Temple Square. By August 20 the survey of Plat A was completed. It included 114 ten-acres blocks, each containing 8 lots. Lots were 10 by 20 rods or 165 by 330 feet (1 1/4 acres) in size. Each block alternated in the way the lots were divided and the houses faced. Only one house was permitted on each lot and had to be 20 feet off the street. Streets were 8 rods (132 feet) wide. Apostles selected a number of lots surrounding Temple Square, but general distribution was not made until Young and Heber C. Kimball were chosen to do so on September 24, 1848. Each applicant was assigned property by Heber C. Kimball and Thomas Bullock. Bullock maintained a record of the land distribution. A fee of $1.50 was paid for each lot acquired ($1.00 to cover surveying expenses, and $.50 as a filing fee). Each person's receipt for the land became his deed for the purposes of maintaining his claim and the conveyance of the land in the future. Unmarried men were not given an allotment, but polygamists were entitled to receive one for each family.

Within days the lots in Plat A had been distributed. The desire for land not satisfied, Plat B containing 63 additional blocks east of Plat A was surveyed and readied for distribution during 1848. Plat C was soon added to Plats A and B. In February, 1849, the three were divided into 19 ecclesiastical wards, a bishop presiding over each ward. Under the supervision of each bishop, fences and irrigation ditches were constructed for the benefit of all ward members. (All wards in the Salt Lake County were part of the Salt Lake Stake. Before the stake was divided on 28 Jan 1900, to create the Jordan and Granite Stakes, the Salt Lake Stake was composed of 51 wards. Angus M. Cannon served as president for 28 years, from 1876-1904. Elijah F. Sheets served as Bishop of the 8th Ward [the 8 blocks contiguous to Washington
Square] for nearly 50 years, from 1855-1904.)

That same autumn plans were formulated for the distribution by lottery of a tract of farmland known as the "Big Field." Five acre lots were to be next to the city, followed by ten-acre, then twenty-acre, and finally forty-acre lots. Those wanting farmland were asked to register with a clerk and to indicate the number of acres they desired. By October 1848, 863 applicants had asked for a total of 11,0005 acres. This demand for land in the "Big Field" was so great that in the end only five- and ten-acre lots could be granted. (Wilford Woodruff was not the original owner, but soon acquired four of the five-acre plots or 20 acres where his stuccoed log cabin still sits at 1604 South 500 East. Brigham Young received 20 five-acre plots in a contiguous section for 100 acres. At his death, this property was acquired by Salt Lake City and is now Liberty Park.)

Any disputes which arose as a result of this system of land distribution were resolved by the ecclesiastical authority of the Church.

Federal involvement. On November 30, 1853, the commissioner of the General Land Office suggested "that surveying districts be established in the territories of Utah and New Mexico to ascertain and report to Congress the present condition of the land titles therein." The suggestion was passed on to President Franklin Pierce, who on Dec. 5, t853, in his message to Congress, recommended the extension of the national land system to the "Territories of Utah and New Mexico, with such modifications as their peculiarities may require."

By 1855 a surveying district had been created and a surveyor general appointed for the territory. On July 27, 1855, David H. Burr arrived in Great Salt Lake City prepared to begin the survey. By September 30, 1856, Burr was able to report the establishment of an initial point for his survey as well as the running of the base and meridian lines to points located nearly 4 miles east, 36 miles west, 84 miles north, and 72 miles south from the initial point (southeast corner of Temple Square). He noted that the survey of "one hundred and thirty townships (a square six miles on each side) and fractional townships (probably terrain hindrances) had been completed and that one survey crew still in the field was expected to be finished with their assignment in the "Sanpete and Youab [Juab] valleys" before winter.

Burr found the incorporated limits of Great Salt Lake City included "several square miles" which was considerably larger than the 320 acres allowed to a city of its population in the Townsite Act of May 23, 1844. He suggested legislation that would enable him "to close the lines of the public surveys upon such limits of the city as it may be proper to recognize." His boss, Thomas A. Hendricks, commissioner of the General Land Office, proposed to his boss at the Interior Department that the "peculiar condition of the capital of Utah" be considered and a law passed which "would award to the city a sufficient number of the legal subdivisions to embrace its present actual improvements," and that contiguous subdivisions be required to conform to the federal land laws. Nothing came of the suggestions.

The federal surveys in Utah progressed rapidly and by June 30, 1857, it was reported that 1,987,580 acres had been "prepared for market" but "not advertized for sale." Burr abandoned his position "owing to ... hostilities on the part of the Mormon authorities at Salt Lake City." (By this time, the Utah War was on and Brigham Young had declared martial law.) Commissioner Hendricks noted in his report to Congress that "representations have been made unfavorable to the surveys which have been executed in the Territory" (which later proved true).

With Burr's departure from the Utah Territory, the records were transferred into the care of the governor (Brigham Young, then Alfred Cummings). Here they remained until the autumn of 1859 when Col. Samuel C. Stambaugh, the newly appointed surveyor general of the territory, arrived in Utah. The feeling in the General Land Office was that more land had been surveyed in Utah than was needed. Stambaugh's job, then consisted of securing the records from Gov. Cumming, putting them in order and seeing if the surveys completed by Burr and his party were as bad as had been reported.

Nothing of note happened during the next few years because of Washington's preoccupation with the Civil War. As a result, the surveying district of Utah was consolidated with that of Colorado, and the records of the Utah office were transferred to the Denver-based surveyor general of Colorado during 1862.

During the autumn of 1866, there was a rash of claim-jumping in Salt Lake City. The city's public squares had to be fenced to prevent squatters from settling on them. The militia's parade ground, the city race course, and some private claims in the western area of the city were temporarily seized by claim-jumpers. Established settlers were aroused. On one occasion a group of them went to the race course on the west side of the Jordan River, collected some of the squatters there, threw them into the water, tore down the intruder's buildings, and heaved the boards into the river after them.

Such incidents prompted Brigham Young to state explicitly that although the established community would not tolerate any claim-jumping, it would welcome any newcomer who was willing to claim open land and make it productive.

One murder in Salt Lake City has been attributed to the uneasiness of the community
during these autumn months of 1866. Within the northern corporate boundary, the city possessed a tract of approximately 80 acres of land containing warm springs (where the Children's Museum is now located). Buildings were constructed about a quarter mile south of the springs and for a few years maintained the area as a public bathing resort. Water was brought from the spring in a log flume.

It was on this property that Dr. J. King Robinson chose to stake claim to some of the property by erecting a small shack. The city council ordered the marshal to destroy the structure and eject the intruder. The order was fulfilled, and on appeal before the chief justice of the territory, John Titus, Robinson's case failed. On the night of October 22, 1866, Robinson was attacked in the street near his home and severely beaten by seven unidentified individuals. He died from the wounds.

Claim-jumping continued on into the winter months of 1866-67. Brigham Young was more strident on December 23: "If they jump my claims here, I shall be very apt to give them a preemption right that will last them to the last resurrection. I hope no man will ever venture so far as to tempt me to do such a thing. The Latter-day Saints will never again pull up stakes and give their possessions to their enemies."

On March 2, 1867, Congress approved "An Act for the Relief of the Inhabitants of Cities and Towns upon the Public Lands." It provided that the authorities of incorporated towns entering claims for lands within their jurisdiction at the proper land office and paying the minimum price could obtain title to these lands "in trust for the several use and benefit of the occupants thereof, according to their respective interests."

Since the national land system still had not been extended to Utah Territory, its inhabitants could not avail themselves of this act until July 1868, when Congress adopted "An Act to create the Office of Surveyor General in the Territory of Utah, and establish a Land Office in said Territory, and extend the Homestead and Pre-emption Laws over the same." It also authorized the president to appoint a surveyor general for the territory with an annual salary of $3,000. Sponsor of the Act was Territorial Delegate to Congress, William H. Hooper of Utah. At the time almost 100,000 people were living in the territory and only 2,517,912 acres of a total of 56,355,635 had been surveyed. The transcontinental railroad had also pushed the issue of public land in Utah to the forefront.

Under the new law, corporate authorities of incorporated cities (or probate judges in unincorporated areas) were to apply to the federal land office for the acreage within their jurisdictions at $1.25 per acre. Within 30 days of entering any lands at the United States Land Office, corporate authorities or judge had to publish notice regarding the parcels in five public places, once each week for three consecutive months. Claimants had 6 months to make their own claims or contest the same in court. Numerous conflicting land claims were finally settled at this time. The claimant paid the corporate authority or judge the required $1.25. The law required that the actual transfer of title was to be made by means of "deeds of conveyance. Land not claimed could be sold for $5 per acre.

Salt Lake City. The incorporated area of Salt Lake City presented a multifaceted problem to those attempting to superimpose the national land system of townships and sections upon a plan of plats, blocks, and lots.

Problem #1 - townsite size. The Townsite Act of March 2, 1867, had fixed the number of acres to be embraced by any town in terms of its population (320 acres [half section] for 1-199 persons; 640 acres [section] for 200-999 persons; 1,280 to 2,560 for 1,000 to 4,999 persons) with a 5,000 population maximum. The population in Salt Lake City in 1869 was about 12,000 (12,859 in 1870 Census) and its incorporated limits encompassed about three times the 2,560 acres allowed towns of 5,000 or more. On February 13, 1869, the territorial governor and legislature adopted a memorial asking Congress for relief by amending the Townsite Act.

Finally, on November 21, 1871, some 5,730 acres were entered on the townsite docket of the General Land Office for Salt Lake City, and the patent for the land was sent to Mayor Wells. He could now convey legally recognized title to land within the city.

Problem #2 - how to superimpose the national land system over land platted in Salt Lake City 8 years before the federal surveys. A compromise was reached. Within plats already surveyed and apportioned, land was described in terms of lot, block, and plat. This system is still used in Salt Lake City, today. Outside of these plats the national land system was imposed and the lands were described in terms of township and section.

By June 30, 1869, just four months after opening the land office in Salt Lake City, 148,402.91 acres had been disposed of in the Utah Territory. Of this total, 51,683.26 acres had been sold at a price of not less than $1.25 an acre, and 96,764.65 acres had been disposed of under the terms of the Homestead acts of May 20, 1862, and June 21, 1866.

Approval of these applications for title began appearing on the records of the United States Land Office in 1870. Henceforth, settlers of Utah Territory could obtain title to their lands. With this privilege came the inherent prerogatives and protection that such a title holder possessed under the auspices of the U.S. government.


1. RIO GRANDE RAILROAD DEPOT (300 South 450 West): Constructed in 1909 to service the Western Pacific Railroad, it is currently headquarters of the Utah Historical Society. In the former waiting room is a nice museum, free to the public, which depicts Utah's history and diverse cultures with displays, pictures, and artifacts, a "prairie schooner," and handcart. The society operates a gift and bookstore, which includes copies of their magazines, on the main floor and a research library on the second floor. National Register of Historic Places.

2. BOYER COMPANY PLANS FOR SALT LAKE "GATEWAY" (between 400 and 500 West Streets and between North Temple and 500 South Streets): The Boyer company plans to purchase 40 acres around the Union Pacific and Rio Grande Railroad Depots. If the company gets approval from the SL City planning commission, it will convert the area of run-down buildings and railroad tracks into office buildings, apartments, movie theaters, theme restaurants, a new road and parking terraces by the time the Olympics arrive in 2002. Only the city, the Mormon Church, and Sinclair Oil owner, Earl Holding, own larger tracts of land in the city. The city is supposed to adopt a master plan for the "Gateway" in May or June, 1998. Mass transit and other concepts may alter what the Boyer Company hopes to create. Stay tuned. The area will soon be changed forever.

3. FORD MOTOR/EIMCO BUILDING (414 West 300 South): Gastronomy and Pioneer Partners are renovating this 85,000 square-foot building that sits on 1.6 acres. Originally built by Ford Motor Co. in 1923, it was used by them until the 1960s. It will become office space. Gastronomy renovated the New York Hotel [includes Market Street Grill] and Salt Lake Hardware Buildings.

4. FARMER'S MARKET "Gateway" Project Genesis (Pierpont Avenue): Constructed in 1910 to house wholesale produce firms, one section later became Bradshaw Auto Parts where owner Franklin Bradshaw was murdered in 1978 by his grandson. In 1978 Mayor Ted Wilson and Commissioner Jess Agraz and others boosted a plan created by ASSIST (a non-profit group) to renovate the west side of Salt Lake City. The concept was kept alive and evolved into what is known as the "Gateway" project. In 1983 Stephen Goldsmith began converting the old Eccles/Browning warehouse (site of the old farmer's market) into living/working space for artists and commercial users. Artspace, which grew out of the concept, provides artists with affordable studios, living quarters, and backyard garden plots. Goldsmith is still involved. The mural on the east end was painted by Peruvian artist Peruko Copacatty in 1987.

5. BAILEY FIRESTONE TIRE (308 W 300 South Street): Ken Millo, an architect, and City Life Properties are renovating this building and wanted to include a jazz club, restaurant, Italian market and European bakery. Three condominium units were added to "Tire Town," and sold for $300,000 to $330,000. Based on demand for these units, Millo will break ground in the spring of 1998 on a 24-unit condominium complex immediately to the north. Units will be priced between $140,000 and $475,000. Because State law prohibits liquor being sold within 600 feet of a park or school, the owners petitioned the city to change the name of Pioneer Park to Pioneer Square, so the club and restaurant could sell liquor. The city nixed the idea and the main floor will become office space, but it could be leased to an alcohol-free restaurant. Notice the roof garden.

6. HOLY TRINITY GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH (279 South and 300 West Streets): In 1905, the Greek community borrowed $8,000 from Walker Brother's Bank and built their first church west of Pioneer Park (439 West on 400 South). In 1908, the first wedding was performed in the church. Only 3 women are in the wedding picture. Young Greeks had come to work in the mines and smelters and were either unmarried or had left their wives in Greece, hoping to return after earning a nest egg to start life with.

The current property was purchased from the Sweet Candy Company in 1920 for about $20,000. Construction began in 1923 and the $150,000 building was dedicated in 1925. Architects for the project were Pope and Burton, who also designed the Cardston and Hawaiian Temples for the LDS Church. They also designed St. Paul's Episcopal Church (261 S 900 E).

Greek school was held in the afternoons from 4-6 P.M. to preserve the language and culture. The building was renovated in 1958 and repainted in 1994.

In 1986, the Helenic Cultural Society was created to look after the Greek exhibit that had been on display in the basement of the Utah State Historical building. Helen Papanikolas was in charge of the society, which rented space in the basement of the church for $1 per year and created a unique museum of Greek culture, religion, and contributions to Utah. Many Greeks came to Utah to work on railroad gangs and in the mines. Later, many of the immigrants opened coffee shops, candy stores and ice cream parlors. In the west part of Salt Lake County, Greek families lived in "Greek Town," which looked like villages in Greece - women baking bread in outdoor ovens, large vegetable gardens and a life where the Greek Orthodox Church was a central focus.

Many of the articles in the museum have great sentimental value for the families who donated them. They gave them up because it's important to the community. The museum is open on Wednesdays from 9-12 A.M. or other times by appointment. Office: 328-9681, 359-4163, or call Con Skosos, 484-9708. National Register.

Emigration Street: 300 South Street was originally known as Emigration Street. Emigrants came off the bench by the U. of U. and traveled down this street to the fort and later to Union Square. Businessmen requested the street be officially named "Broadway.

7. BROADWAY HOTEL (222 West 300 South): Built in 1912 for Samuel and David Spitz, it is now a tenement hotel.

8. FIRST SUNDAY SCHOOL MARKER (Northeast corner of 300 South and 200 West): This was the location of Richard Ballantyne's house. Having taught Sunday School in his native Scotland, he began the first Mormon Sunday School in Utah. Notice the street lamps which date from the early 1900s.

9. FIRST PIONEER CEMETERY, 184748 (about 355 South on 200 West): This cemetery just happened. Milton Howard Therlkill, age 3, drowned in City Creek, Aug. 11, 1847, and was buried here on the side of a Fremont Indian mound (garbage dump) the next day. He was part of the Mississippi Saints group that caught up with Brigham's advance group at Ft. Laramie, June 2, and came into the Valley, July 22. Caroline Van Dyke Grant (age 29) wife of Jedediah M. Grant, died at Bear River., Sept. 26, of cholera. Jedediah drove the 75 miles to Salt Lake as quickly as possible in order to bury her in the Valley. She was laid next to Milton Therlkill on the 30th. The rest of Grant's group arrived, Oct. 2nd. Nancy O'Neal Rich, age 65, a member of that group died 3 days later of exposure and pneumonia and was buried next to Caroline.

Excavations in 1986 uncovered 32 bodies on the east side of block 49, about where the drive entrance is, south of the apartments on the northeast corner, and about 20 yards in from the street. The 9 adults and 23 young persons and babies were later reinterred at "This is the Place" State Park (one block east of Mary Fielding Smith's house).

The official city cemetery was begun in 1848 at its present location. In 1856, an city ordinance ended interments in locations other than the city cemetery, unless special permission was granted. Bodies previously buried elsewhere were required to be relocated except for special dispensations. A motion passed to allow the bodies buried here at the Indian Mound on the Shurtliff property to remain. The cemetery was never well marked, nor had permanent head stones and basically disappeared from consciousness until construction was begun in 1985.

10. J. G. McDONALD CHOCOLATE COMPANY "Broadway Lofts" (159 West 300 South): Constructed in 1901 with four stories. An additional story was added in 1914. Notice the windows increase in importance and style. Each day at noon workers took lunch in an elaborate roof garden among vines and flowers, monkeys, parrots, and hundreds of rare birds. James

McDonald inherited his father's business in 1912. It began as a grocery that manufactured its own salt water taffy and hand-dipped chocolates. James began specializing in boxed chocolates and a chocolate drink intended to replace the "injurious use of tea and coffee." At its peak, the company employed 400 people. The Dixon Paper Company moved into the building in 1941. National Register.

Westside Development Associates LLC, a partnership of 4 businesses formed to develop downtown condominiums, will convert this building into 101 condominiums (called the "Broadway Lofts") ranging in price from $150,000 to $795,000, a $30 million development This is their second condo project. Construction will last from January, 1998, through the spring of 1999. (Projects #3 [Sweet Candy Co.] and #1 [Salt Lake Stamp/Dakota Lofts] are at the end of this tour.)

11. OREGON SHORTLINE RAILROAD/SALT LAKE HIGH SCHOOL (122 West Pierpont Avenue): This was the first major work of architect Carl Neuhausen, who later designed the Kearns mansion, Cathedral of the Madeleine, and the State Street Orpheum Theater (Promised Valley Playhouse). Construction began on the east wing in 1897 as an office building for the Oregon Shortline Railroad, which connected to the Union Pacific Railroad in 1884. (The Union Pacific Railroad Depot west of the Delta Center and Devereaux House was originally built by the Oregon Shortline Railroad.)

Before it was completed the Salt Lake school board, looking for a permanent location for a high school, leased the building and requested the west wing be added. The building was completed in 1898, and for the next 20 years was the home of the Salt Lake High School. The National Guard used it for their armory after that. Boxer Jack Dempsey is said to have done training in the gymnasium. The building was renovated by Gastronomy (Same group that renovated the New York Hotel [Market Street Grill, etc.]) between 1985-88. National Register

12. PEERY HOTEL (110 West 300 South): This elegant 3-winged Prairie School building was constructed in 1910 for Joseph and David Peery. They sold the hotel in 1947 to Harry Miles who owned the Showboat Hotel in Las Vegas. The hotel was restored in 1985. National Register.

13. ELY HOTEL (43 West 300 South): Built in 1906 by wagon and plough dealer James Paine, this narrow, 3-story hotel was one of a number of hotels built during the first two decades of the 20th Century near the railroad depots. Paine sold the building in 1920 to the Salt Lake Stamp Company, which occupied the ground level, but kept the hotel in operation on the upper floors. A later occupant was the Thousand Peaks Livestock Company.

14. GREENEWALD FURNITURE COMPANY (35 West 300 South): Built in 1903, Greenewald Furniture was the first company to occupy Mary Judge's 3-story reinforced brick commercial structure. It was later a millinery (women's apparel for the head) mall housing Forbes Hat, Jay Hat, and Bercu Millinery. The fourth floor was added in 1912. National Register.

Independence Hall /First non-Mormon church (about 25 West, 300 South): This adobe structure, 33 x 57 feet, was set back from the street a bit. The original land cost $2,500 and the building, $25,000. It was built by the Congregational Church and completed in November, 1865. Besides non-Mormon social gatherings, it was used as a church by the Congregational, Methodist, Episcopalian, Jewish, and Masonic congregations as a church. The name meant "independence" from the Mormons and was a symbol of freedom as Faneuil Hall was to the people of Boston. After 25 years, the Congregational Church sold the building for $50,000.

Dr. King Robinson, the church's Sunday School superintendent, was clubbed to death outside the building. He had been involved in a property dispute at the Warm Springs with some Mormons. No one was ever accused or punished for the crime. Bad feelings persist to this day over the incident. Permission was given to bury Dr. King (not a soldier) in the Ft. Douglas cemetery. His prominent grave marker includes the words, "Vengeance is Mine."

15. NEW YORK HOTEL (48 Market Street): This 75-room hotel was built in 1906 for Orange Salisbury, a Cornell-educated mining engineer who obtained several patents and organized the Kelly Filter Press Company. Extensively remodeled in the mid 1970s it is now home to the Market Street Grill and New Yorker Club. Gastronomy was the company that tackled the renovation. National Register.

16. ODD FELLOWS HALL (39 Market Street): This brick and rusticated-stone building was built in 1891. It once housed the fraternal lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F). One of the fraternal symbols, "the all-seeing-eye," is carved in stone over the main entrance. The building's Romanesque façade is nicely textured. Things to notice: Metal plants in design, faux brick in restoration, bolts holding the building together, fired (but not "pressed" brick - a later, more uniform, more expensive, more weather resistant brick manufactured with equipment that could squeeze more moisture from the brick before firing), sandstone foundation.

In the late 19th Century, the development of exclusive societies coincided with the growth of Utah's non-Mormon population. The quasi- religious nature of fraternal organizations generally meant that Mormons and Catholics were excluded. For local Protestants and Jews who comprised the bulk of fraternal membership, participation offered social benefits, life insurance policies, and other amenities. National Register.

17. UNITED STATES COURT HOUSE/POST OFFICE (350 South Main Street): Completed in 1906, this $500,000 Neo- Classical Revival building is the oldest in the district. The classical style mas popular for government buildings during this era. Originally used as the Federal Building and Post Office, and significantly remodeled and enlarged in the 1930s, the building is now used only for judicial purposes. A few years ago it was named after Utah's last Democratic Senator, Frank E. Moss. (Granite District has a school named after Frank's father, James E. Moss.)

18. COMMERCIAL CLUB (32 Exchange Place): This impressive 6-story Second Renaissance Revival building was constructed in 1909 at a cost of nearly $400,000 and was intended by its architects as a smaller version of the New York City Athletic Club. Samuel Newhouse donated the land for the building. Its polychromatic terra cotta panels of colorful mosaics make it easily one of the most attractive commercial structures in the downtown area. A basement swimming pool is no longer used. Eddie and Jack Simantov bought the building in 1990 and operate the Simantov Oriental Rug Gallery on Main Street immediately north of the Boston Building. They began a $1.4 million restoration and upgrade in 1996. Notice "pressed" and non-pressed brick on the west side. National Register.

19. SALT LAKE STOCK AND MINING EXCHANGE (39 Exchange Place): This Neo- Classical Revival, 2-story, T-shaped, sandstone building was constructed in 1908 to house a stock exchange. Organized in 1888, the exchange dealt almost exclusively in mining and petroleum stock and operated by open auction system. In 1897 seats sold for $16; two years later they sold for $400. The exchange was busy trading uranium stocks through the 1950s. The building, designed by John C. Craig (he did work for the "Silver Queen" Susanna Bransford, including the Bransford Apartments), now accommodates attorneys and architects. National Register.

Between here and State Street, the camp of July 23, 1847, was established. North and east of here is where the first irrigating and planting was done.

20. & 21. BOSTON and NEWHOUSE BUILDINGS (9 and 10 E Exchange Place): Designed by famous New York architect Henry Ives Cobb, these 11-story high-rise buildings, built in 1911, have a distinctive eastern urban look. Financed by Samuel Newhouse and named after his Boston Consolidated Mine Company, and his own name, they contributed to his dream of a miniature Wall Street in Salt Lake City. Notice the three-part design; main floors, vertical office floors, and massive cornice which imitate the base, shaft, and capital of a classical column. On the Boston building notice that the huge coat-of-arms shields (cartouches) under the second-story dentiled cornice are replicated at the top of the building. Like the Boston building, the Newhouse is a stone-faced, steel structure with classical details. Notice the carved stonework at the upper level, especially the industrial and agricultural symbols including a garland of corn stocks. The Newhouse Building has a copper-plated door and window trim.

Newhouse also wanted to anchor the east end of Exchange Place with two other tall buildings, but personal and financial reverses interfered.

About Samuel Newhouse: Samuel Newhouse made his multi-million-dollar fortune in freighting and mining. Raised in New York City of Russian-Jewish immigrants, he earned a law degree there before heading west and is said to have been successful in part because of his flamboyance. He and his wife, Ida, typified the frenetic 1890s, shuttling between mansions in Salt Lake City, Long Island, London, and Paris. Newhouse was successful in obtaining investment capital worth millions from his rich friends in Europe. In 1898 Samuel Newhouse and Thomas Weir formed the Boston Consolidated Mining Company. They owned the Highland Boy copper mine in Bingham Canyon and constructed the Highland Boy copper smelter, the first copper smelter in the Territory in Murray, where Riverside Junior High is located. Samuel Newhouse sold out to William Rockefeller and Henry H. Rogers, of Standard Oil, in 1899, in a $12 million dollar transaction that netted Newhouse about $3 million in profit. With that, he bought land once owned by the Walker Brothers (they owned the whole block between 4' and 5th South and between Main and West Temple Streets) and built the Newhouse Hotel.

After a number of financial reversals, Newhouse was forced into bankruptcy and he and Ida separated in 1915. Newhouse then lived for a few years in his nearby Newhouse Hotel but eventually left for Paris where he died in 1930. (The Newhouse Hotel, also 11-stories, was a 300-room hotel with a replica of the Louis XV Room at Versailles, located on the southwest corner of Main and 400 South. It went into gradual decline and was demolished in the 1980s. It is now a parking lot.) Ida lived in the Belvedere Apartments, built in 1919, north of the Social Hall, before she moved to the Beverly Hills Hotel. They also had a large house on South Temple Street.

22. JUDGE BUILDING/Railroad Exchange (8 East 300 South): Mary Judge constructed this 7-story "fire-proof" building in 1907 as offices for 22 railroad companies. Mary Harney, of Irish descent, married Irish immigrant John McBrehoney, who changed his name to Judge when he arrived in the United States. John was a partner with Thomas Kearns and David Keith in the Silver King Mine in Park City and worked six days a week, seeing Mary only on Sundays, dying of dust inhalation in 1892. Mary subsequently invested dividends in real estate, endowed the Catholic high school on I 100 East Street which bears her name, and contributed toward construction of the Cathedral of the Madeleine. National Register.

On the sixth floor in 1985, Mormon document dealer Mark Hofman killed collector Steven Christensen with a pipe bomb to prevent exposure as a forger.

23. AMERICAN STORES CENTER (Northeast corner, 300 South and Main Streets): Completed early in 1998, this 620,000 square-foot office building will house the administrative offices for the second-biggest chain of grocery and drug stores (more than 700) in the United States (none of which are in Utah). American Stores traces its roots to Sam Skaggs' father, a Baptist minister who opened Skaggs Cash Store in American Falls, Idaho, in 1915 to help keep his congregation supplied with groceries and dry goods. Over time, Sam Skaggs and his brothers expanded operations and eventually American Stores came to include Acme Markets, Jewel Food stores, Osco Drugs, Sav-On and the Alpha Beta chain.

Sam retired from the board of directors in April, 1997, and lives a Howard Hughes kind of existence with his wife in a mansion on Walker Lane in Holladay. Sam Skaggs' personal wealth was estimated to be close to a billion dollars. He has given close to $200 million away, ranking him one of the largest philanthropists in the United States. He recently gave a substantial gift of money and land to create the Skaggs Catholic Center in Draper.

The building cost about $100 million and boasts Limestone from Indiana, English slate, and granite from Minnesota, African mahogany in the elevators and a sky walk to the parking terrace. Ten-foot high ceilings allow for plenty of light and "theater seating," which slopes cubicle partitions from one side of the building's broad office floors to the other, guarantees every worker an unobstructed view of the Wasatch Range. A grocery store and cafeteria in the 17,000 foot basement will satisfy the needs of most employees and allow Utahns their first look at the company's retailing.

24. KEITH BUILDING (256 South Main Street): Built in 1902 at a cost of $150,000, this 3- story building first housed the Keith-O'Brien Company dry goods store. David Keith and lifelong friend Thomas Kearns discovered the Silver King vein in Park City which produced $10 million in gold, silver, and lead. Keith and Kearns purchased the Salt Lake Tribune in 1905, and Keith was president of numerous banks, railroads, and fraternities, and a member of Utah's constitutional convention. (Begun in 1928, Sam Weller's Bookstore, perhaps the best in the city, has occupied this location since 1961. It is a good source for western and Mormon history, first-editions, rare copies, etc.) National Register.

25. LOLLIN BUILDING (238 South Main Street): John Lollin, a Danish immigrant, operated the popular saloon. He financed this building in 1894 to house the Hudson Bay Fur Company and Ella Becker Millinery. He lived in a third-floor apartment. National Register.

26. KARRICK HALL (236 South Main Street): Lewis Karrick, founder of the bank, previously mentioned, built this gambling hall in 1887. Upstairs were apartments for 8 prostitutes, several of whose names remain on their doors (not open to the public). He also headed the local vigilante Karrick Guards. He made an unsuccessful bid for mayor on the Liberal Party (anti-Mormon) ticket. When his fortune dwindled, and following a series of illnesses, he committed suicide. National Register.

This and the building to the south were both designed by Richard Kletting.

27. NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC/West One Bank (208 South Main Street): Constructed in 1923 on the site of the "White House Hotel", an early hotel popular with visitors at the turn of the century, this bank financed many of the brothels, saloons, and gambling halls in town, including the most opulent of the group, Karrick Hall, named for the founder of the bank, Lewis Karrick. National Register.

Second South and Main Street: As businesses replaced residences, trees disappeared. Except for the ZCMI building, and the Salt Lake House, for a time, the two
blocks north by 1870 had no trees at all. Business buildings were only separated from the street by a raised dirt level. Board walks and awnings would appear later.

First Traffic Light Intersection in America: Prior to World War I, Lester Wire became a policeman in Salt Lake City. Being young and a junior member of the force, he was assigned to the dreaded duty of traffic control. His station was the intersection of Second South and Main Streets. Electricity was available on poles running down Main Street, so he stuck a pipe in the center of the intersection, cut holes for his lights (he chose green and red because of similar lights he had seen on his sister's Christmas tree), built a roof over the contraption (it looked like a bird house), and ran wires to one of the corners, where he operated the device manually. Shortly after he enlisted for service in WW I. By the time of his discharge someone else had patented his idea and gone into production. Lester received nothing for the invention. (Since I first heard this story, I've heard someone else claim the invention happened somewhere else in the country.)

First electric light in SLC (front of Walker Brother's Building (northwest corner of 200 South and Main Streets): The switch was thrown, April 1, 1891. (Salt Lake City had been using electricity for trolleys since Aug. 17, 1889.) Two post lamps were lit, one in front of the Walker Brothers Store (northwest corner) and the other in front of Lipman and Davis. Some spectators claimed the light gave them headaches, even though they weren't very bright. Electric customers paid $27 per month per lamp for all night; $19 for 12 hours; $12.50 for service to 10 p.m. only. Initially, power was on from dusk to 10 p.m. and midnight on "dance and theater nights. It went on for a few hours on Tuesday for ironing. Street lights were on only if there
were not sufficient moonlight.

The lights demonstrated on April 1 were part of a system of three circuits strung on insulators and brackets fastened to buildings. A loop of wiring ran into each of the stores for the number of lights required, then circled back to the generating plant. Faced with its first real competition, the local gas company reduced its rates from $4 per 100 cubic feet to $3 per month, but soon lost ground.

Utah Power & Light Company was organized as a subsidiary of Electric Bond and Share, a national company. Over time, UP&L absorbed other companies and became the largest provider in four Western States.

28. WALKER CENTER (175 South Main Street): When completed in 1912, this 16story commercial style building was the tallest between Chicago and San Francisco (built a year after Salt Lake's first "skyscrapers," the 11-story Boston and Newhouse buildings, 1 1/2 blocks south). Built of steel, concrete, and brick, it also features considerable terra-cotta ornamentation. Walker Brothers Bankers was the first banking establishment in Utah Territory.

The four Walker brothers came to Utah in 1850. They established the Walker Brothers Dry Goods business in 1859 where the Daft Building is now located (128 South Main). Then they moved across the street about where the Tribune Building is now located (136 S Main). Still later they acquired the property on the northwest corner of 200 South and Main Streets, now occupied by the Wells Fargo Building.

The Walker brothers made their early fortunes, selling provisions to Johnston's Army (Utah War) stationed at Camp Floyd, 40 miles southwest of the city. When Brigham Young founded ZCMI, the Walkers sided with the Godbeite dissenters and were excommunicated. Their business continued to thrive, however, as few were able to pass up the lure of eastern imports. (Godbe ran a successful store across the street, east from the Eagle Emporium. He and others resented Brigham's creation of ZCMI and his other business attitudes.)

The Walker brothers began negotiating loans in a back room where their iron safe held gold dust and coins. They eventually owned mines, hotels, an opera house, and interest in railroads and factories. They bought the entire block between Main and West Temple and 400 and 500 South on which they each built a house (2 1/2 acres each). They also bought property in Holladay for their country homes. Walker Lane is still a very upscale neighborhood.

The dry goods declined, but the bank thrived. They bought out the Wells, Fargo & Company operations in Utah in 1905. In June, 1981, Walker Bank, which had joined First Interstate Bank earlier, officially changed its name to First Interstate Bank.

Wells, Fargo & Company was founded in San Francisco in 1852 on the heals of the Gold Rush. An office was opened in Salt Lake City in 1865. By 1869 the company was the first to offer "ocean to ocean" express service by rail. Mail, passenger, and express service continued with their familiar Concord stages pulled by three span of mules. By 1888 Wells, Fargo & Co. had 127 offices. Walker Bank was acquired by First Interstate Bank.

In 1996, things came full circle as Wells Fargo won a 3-month hostile takeover bid for Los Angeles-based First Interstate Bank. The$11.6 billion stock deal was the richest in banking history and created the nation's 8' largest bank.

29. HERALD BUILDING (165 South Main Street): This 5-story building was constructed in 1905 for the Salt Lake Herald,
a now-defunct newspaper founded in 1870 (same year as the Mormon Tribune) that was pro- Mormon and sympathetic to Democrats. It ceased publication in 1920 after 50 years. Lamb's Cafe has occupied the ground floor since 1919. Earlier, the Commerce Building-Masonic Hall & Library was located about here. National Register.

30. PONY EXPRESS STATION #8/ FIRST NATIONAL BANK (163 South Main Street): There is a monument on the sidewalk, south of the bus stop. This was "Utah Pony Express Station No. 8" (meaning the 8' station inside the Utah Territory, heading west). It was located inside the Salt Lake House [hotel]. Station No. 9 was located about 6200 South State Street. The Pony Express was an expensive effort by the massive freight company of Russell, Majors, & Waddell to secure a lucrative government mail contract (which never happened). As news was brought by the Pony Express of the impending Civil War in the east, the Deseret News began issuing "extras" which became known as the Pony Dispatch. News of President Lincoln's election victory arrived in Utah in only 8 days.

Built in 1871, this is the oldest cast-iron façade in the Intermountain West (now partially boarded over). It was designed by Richard M. Upjohn, son of the famous New York architect. Originally called the Miners National Bank, the institution k&us founded in 1866 by Charles Dahler, agent for Ben Holladay's Overland Mail and Express stage route, and gold and land broker Warren Hussey. In 1875 it was shortened one story by fire and given a new roof. The building then became a Masonic temple (the 3rd-floor assembly room and glass-paneled partitions in the library still exist). In the t880s it became the offices of later governor Simon Bamberger (he also owned a railroad). National Register

STAGE-COACHES (The Welts, Fargo & Co. office was about 125 South Main, north of the Salt Lake House. Ben Holladay's Overland Stage had an office in or close by the Salt Lake House): Ben "Doc" Holladay came through Salt Lake City in 1849 with 50 wagons loaded with $70,000 in merchandise (primarily Mexican War surplus items from St. Louis) headed for the gold fields. He bore letters from General Doniphan (a Missouri friend of the Mormons) and solicited help from the Mormons to get his freight over the mountains to California. In 1850, he brought $150,000 worth of goods to Utah Territory. What he didn't sell he took to California. He was treated well by the Mormons and vice versa. Over the years many of his supervisors, riders, and passengers were Mormons. He made it a point to travel his stage lines from coast to coast several times a year to get the firsthand knowledge that kept him ahead of his competitors. At one time, his company was the biggest in the world and employed thousands.

By 1866, his wife had died, and he was tired of the freighting and stage business. He sold his coach line to Wells, Fargo & Company and went to Portland, Oregon. Poor business decisions there and the economic panic of 1873 reduced his financial empire to shambles. (Holladay, Utah, is named after Bishop John Holladay and NOT Ben Holladay.)

31. SALT LAKE TRIBUNE BUILDING (143 South Main Street): The Mormon Tribune, now the Salt Lake Tribune, was founded in 1870 by Mormons unhappy with Brigham Young's blending of church and state. They employed New York Herald reporter Oscar Sawyer as chief editor, and the paper turned a critical eye on local culture. This was a hit among sophisticates but loathed by rank and file Mormons. The original offices were on 100 South Street Oust west of the Dinwoodey Cabinet Shop, (37 West 100 South). With 2,000 subscribers, the paper's first issue appeared April 15, 1871. One hundred years later the paper boasted 107,000 subscribers.

This structure was built in 1924 by Salt Lake businessman and mayor, Ezra Thompson, as an investment and, as was common in those days, carried his name. It is located on ground once occupied by the Salt Lake House, one of Salt Lake City's oldest hotels. This is where Sir Richard Burton, author of "The City of the Saints," here in 1860 while he gathered information for his book. The Pony Express and Overland Stage offices were a bit north. At this hotel in 1859 a member of cattle-rustler Cub Johnson's gang shot and maimed rival outlaw Bill Hickman. When an accomplice stormed Hickman's room, a revolver in each hand, Hickman's guard stabbed him eleven times with a bowie knife. (On Christmas Day of the same year, Hickman was severely wounded in the thigh in a shootout with Lot Huntington in front of the Townsend House hotel the next block west, where the Salt Palace arena once stood.) Four years later at the same hotel, the same guard fatally stabbed one of Johnson's group, this time in the presence of witnesses. He was arrested and executed.

During the Utah War, two "spies" were held at the Salt Lake House until shot. This is also where Atlantic Monthly correspondent Fritz Ludlow interviewed Orrin Porter Rockwell in 1862.

32. KEARNS BUILDING (136 South Main Street): A magnificent building completed in 1911 for Thomas Kearns, this 10-story "skyscraper" is the best preserved Sullivanesque (style developed by Louis Sullivan) highrise in the intermountain west. It was built of concrete with a terra-cotta façade facing the street and brick facades on the sides. Most striking are the 7 life-size female figurines supporting lanterns at the second-story level. They are said to bear the face of Kearn's daughter. Kearns built a magnificent house on South Temple Streets now used as the Governor's Mansion. Notice the domed entry way and the clock that indicates "U.S. Observatory Time" according to "Western Union."

Kearns was a Utah mining entrepreneur, U.S. senator, and part-owner of the Mormon Tribune (anti-Mormon newspaper), beginning in 1905. He contributed toward construction of the Cathedral of the Madeleine and St. Ann's Orphanage. From 1911 until his death (he was killed when hit by a car here on Main Street in 1918) he served on the board of trustees of Catholic University of America. His son, Thomas, Jr., founded Utah's chapter of Alcoholics Anonymous.

33. DAFT BUILDING (128 South Main Street): The best surviving example of the work of Elias Harrison, a Mormon dissenter, this Victorian Queen Anne façade over brick base fronted Sarah Daft's real estate office at the turn of the century. It was completed in 1890 at a cost of $17,500. The Young Men's Literary Association, an alternative to Mormon youth programs, met on the second floor. Sarah and her husband wanted to have a nondenominational retirement home (the only ones in existence, then, were for Mormons). When her husband died, Sarah started looking around for a place and devoted all her efforts to getting it started. When she died in 1900, she left all her money ($20,000) to open up a place for elderly women. A home was finally built in 1913 for elderly women at 737 South 1300 East (kitty corner from East High) with 14 rooms and was named the Sarah Daft Home. Strict rules were followed (they had to share in the work and sign over their estates at death). In the 1970s, a $4 million wing was added, men were allowed to move in, and there are about 40 residents. It is one of only two nonprofit retirement centers in Utah. Note the bolt/turnbuckle and various qualities of brick used in construction.

In 1908 the Main Street building was acquired by John Daynes, an English watchmaker, for Daynes Jewelry and Music companies. Daynes served 30 years as Mormon Tabernacle organist. Note his name plates still on the front of the store and his painted advertisement on the exterior north wall. National Register.

34. EAGLE EMPORIUM /Zion's First National Bank (102 South Main Street): This is the oldest commercial building in downtown Salt Lake City. It was constructed in 1863 to house William Jennings's mercantile business. It became the original home of ZCMI in 1868 when still a single story, then Zion's First National Bank in 1890. In 1916 the bank had the stone building refaced with a Neo-Classical veneer of terra- cotta. Notice the terra-cotta eagle over the entrance and a four-faced, 120-year-old brass clock in front that used to be water powered. The building's original architect was William Paul, Jenning's father-in-law, who also designed Jenning's Devereaux mansion (a remodel of William Staines' house north of the Delta Center). In the mid-1880's two stories were added to the Emporium. Zion's First National Bank (founded in 1873) removed the two upper floors in 1982.

Jennings immigrated from England when he was twenty-six years old, working as a butcher (his father's trade) and tanner before earning his first million. He made his fortune as a freighter and then supplying grain to the Overland Stage Company, investing profits in railroading and banking. He became a director of Deseret National Bank.

The Clock: In 1873, an antique green (now copper colored) clock with "Victorian flamboyance" was carried to this spot by an ox- drawn wagon and mounted atop a wrought iron post. A water-wheel powered the movement. The water-wheel was later replaced by four large springs that were wound every five days. Eventually a series of wet cell batteries replaced the spring-drive system. Every 6 months, Charles Spahr, who worked for Western Union, changed the solution in the cells. Batteries were stored in the bank's basement, near the vault. In 1911, a master clock system was installed with IBM gears. Despite its age, the inner workings remain solid and time continues to show its face on the four-sided orb.

ZCMI Shoe Factory ["Big Boot"] (immediately west and southwest of the Eagle Emporium): Opening in 1870, the shoe factory soon manufactured 83,000 pairs of boots and shoes yearly. Two years after the opening of the shoe factory ZCMI began production of its own line of work clothes in a new clothing factory famous for ZCMI's "Mountaineer" overalls.

Corner of First South And Main Streets: An open air market arose on just to the west of this corner selling meat and other products brought in from the farms and gardens. Innumerable horses and wagons plied the dirt of First and Main, churning it into deep mud during the wet spring. As a result this was the first section of town to have the streets paved with paving bricks (similar bricks from a block north cover the floor of a section of the LDS Church History Museum).

On the northwest corner a two-story general store was erected by Kimball and Lawrence.

On the northeast corner Hooper and Williams Mercantile appeared (later Hooper and Eldredge). A replica of the bank begun by William H. Hooper and Horace S. Eldredge on that same corner in 1868 is located in Old Deseret Village at This is the Place State Park. The bank, encouraged by Brigham Young, was later known as Zion's Cooperative Banking Institution. It developed into First Security Bank. It still operates in the same location in the Deseret Building.

On the southeast corner William S. Godbe built the Exchange Building, three stories high, selling "drugs, medicines, and chemicals" on the main floor. Dentists and doctors occupied the upper floors. You could say it was Utah's first "medical mall." He was the leader of the "Godbeite" movement, intellectuals and businessmen, who broke away from the Mormon Church around 1868 because of disagreements with the policies of Brigham Young, especially business policies. They began the Mormon Tribune newspaper, April 15, 1871. (A replica of an earlier Godbe, Pitt Drug Store is located in Old Deseret Village at This is the Place State Park.)

Trolley System: A mule-driven trolley system provided downtown transportation beginning in July 1872. The mules, all from Missouri, worked in shifts, with six new animals hitched to the trolleys at 6 a.m., 10 a.m., and 4 p.m. They kept a schedule, one frustrated patron complained, as "correctly as a timepiece would without a dial." Soon there were four routes in the city, each only a few blocks long, and the fare was 10 cents. At each terminus was a turntable and the mules would sidle around to head themselves back the other my.

On August 17, 1889, six new electric streetcars undertook a maiden trip up First South. State, city and church dignitaries climbed aboard for the evening trip. Those aboard were the lucky ones. There were fistfights among an estimated 500 less notable folks who wanted to be part of the inaugural ride. The Deseret News reported the next day: "It was a Great Success and Promises a Bright Future." Over time, more than 100 miles of track crisscrossed the city, and a spider web of lines to keep cars moving was woven overhead. Occasionally, male passengers were called on to help the trolley over a "bump" or restore it to tracks.

The lines up Salt Lake's Avenues were especially challenging in the autumn and winter when wet leaves, snow and ice coated the tracks. Passengers could get a "whale of a ride" backward while wheels, locked and sliding down the tracks, squealed. Such wear and tear sometimes flattened the metal wheels on one side and the clang, clang, clang of the trolley would be augmented by the clunk, clunk, clunk of a noisy wheel.

As traffic increased, so did the problem of transfers. To prevent riders asking for a transfer and giving it to another person for a free ride, the company devised a set of transfers that the conductors issued according to a man's mustache style or a woman's hat style. There were 5 for males, ranging from clean-shaven to fully-bearded and 2 for women, indicating hat brims turned up or down.

Trolley workers organized to protest the requirement that they clean the cars themselves and buy their own uniforms. The company refused to recognize the union and on September 17, 1890, 130 workers went on strike. The company countered by hiring and training new men. Company president, Alfred W. McCune (of mansion and railroad building fame) said, "Strikers have the right to withdraw from our service and we have the equal right to employ others to take their place." The strike was ineffective.

In 1908, railroad millionaire and president of Union Pacific Railroad, E.H. Harriman, spent more than $3 million (same amount of money spent to build the State's Capitol Building less than a decade later) to build the Trolley Square complex on a block that had been previously the location of the Territorial Fairgrounds. The barns provided cover for 144 trolley cars, along with maintenance facilities. The 97-foot high, 50,000 gallon water tank, now a landmark, was a safeguard against fire. It was never used for such.

On May 31, 1941, the city announced the demise of the trolleys. But the trolley line along First South to the University of Utah continued to function through World War II to fill a special need. They made their last runs when the war ended.

Western Union Telegraph (about 61 South Main Street, north wall was 1/4 of a block from First South): The impending Civil War was a major impetus to speed completion of the telegraph from coast to coast. Crews worked frantically from Carson City, Nevada, on the west and Omaha, Nebraska, on the east. They met in Salt Lake City, October 18, 1861, where the last pole was set in front of this office. Wires were linked October 24 and the first message sent read: "Utah has not seceded but is firm for the Constitution and laws of our once happy country."

Deseret Telegraph: This Church-owned enterprise was organized April 10, 1865. The key and operator were next to Brigham Young's office in the Beehive House. On January 15, 1867, the line was open to St. George. Three years later, the northern line to Franklin, Idaho, was open. By 1871, more than 600 miles of line were in operation and materials had been purchased for an additional 400 miles of line. Young girls and others were trained as operators. If there was no money to pay the operators, they served as part of a church calling or mission. One of these young female operators met and married Alfred McCune (of McCune mansion fame at 200 North Main Street). Cove Fort, near Interstate 1-70 and 1-15 has a Deseret Telegraph substation exhibit.

Telephone: On March 7, 1876, the day he was granted his first patent, Alexander Graham Bell spoke the following words to his assistant, Thomas Watson, "Come here, I want you." Ogden City had the first telephone lines in the Utah Territory. Salt Lake soon followed with the first telephone conversation March 1, 1879. The first successful system went on line in April 1881. The central office was in the same building where Western Union Telegraph sent its first message 20 years earlier in 1861. In 1895, the company moved into a three-story building on State Street, its home for many years. On January 1, 1882, there were 25 subscribers and 6 employees. Rates were about $3 per month. By t890, the numbers had grown to 506 subscribers and 13 employees, and in 1911, 13,048 Salt Lakers were enjoying telephone service. On July 18, 1914, the last pole was set on the Utah/Nevada border near Wendover and long- distance telephone calls were now possible from New York and San Francisco. Making the first call was Bell in New York calling his one-time assistant, Watson, in San Francisco. His words: "Come here, I want you." Watson replied: "Mr. Bell, I can't. I'm too far away."

35. Z.C.M.I. ( 50 South Main Street): In 1868, Salt Lake City was a community of 20,000 persons. Demand for scarce goods hauled by oxen from the east kept prices high. In response, Brigham Young proposed a cooperative plan to supply the needs of Utah pioneer communities. There would be a central distribution agency in Salt Lake and locally-owned co-ops in every town. Goods could be purchased from manufacturers and importers and resold at reasonable prices. Stock in the new venture would be sold publicly with dividends proportionately divided, thus benefitting the entire community. Mormons were also asked to boycott disaffected and non-Mormon merchants, creating hard feelings on both sides

On October 15, 1868, Brigham and community leaders met to organize Zions Cooperative Mercantile Institution as the parent company. The group included men recognized in Eastern trade circles for their business acumen and credit was immediately extended. Also included were three prominent LDS businessmen well versed in the problems of retailing on the frontier: William Jennings, banker and owner of the Eagle Emporium; William Hooper, manager of the second ZCMI store and Utah's 1859 Congressional delegate; and Horace S. Eldredge, partner in many Utah businesses. Shareholding store owners hastened to erect the ZCMI symbol of membership on their store fronts, the first to do so being Eldredge and Clawson's on the northwest corner of First South and Main Streets on November 13, 1868. Eventually there were 146 cooperative branches throughout the territory, making ZCMI the oldest quasi-department store chain in the United States.

In 1876, many of the several departments were consolidated under a single roof. The impressive three-story brick and iron façade stretched long down Main Street. A wing added in 1880 doubled the square footage and gave entrance on South Temple. Part of the 1876 cast iron façade has been retained. The company is publicly owned, but the LDS Church is still the largest stock holder (51 percent in 1988).

36. BEEHIVE HOUSE (Brigham Young's Residence): Completed in 1854 of adobe block by church builders, this attractive Greek Revival home was Brigham Young's official residence where he lived with his second wife, Mary Ann Angell, and later with Lucy Decker, his first polygamous wife. Previous to this, he lived in a log house and then in the "white" house (the first stuccoed adobe house in the Valley), located across the street to the east and up the hill a little. The small wing to the west served as a reception center and office.

Said Brigham the same year: "My soul feels hallelujah, it exults in God, that He has panted this people in a place that is not desired by the wicked... I want hard times, so that every person that does not wish to stay, for the sake of his religion, will leave. This is a good place to make Saints, and it is a good place for Saints to live. It is the place the Lord has appointed, and we shall stay here until He tells us to go somewhere else.

After Brigham's death, his son, John W. Young lived here. He completely replaced his father's wing, meaning the entire north wing was built by John Young. The size, shape and inside dimensions are all different. Only the south end of the house is original.

The Church bought the house from John Young and it served as the residence of Presidents Lorenzo Snow and Joseph E Smith. It was the site of President Joseph F. Smith's vision of the afterlife just before his death in 1918 (D&C 138). From the 1920s to the 1950s the house served as Young Women's Mutual Improvement Association quarters for teen-age women.

The eagle: Using a real eagle as a model, handcart pioneer, Ralph Ramsay, used five pieces of wood from City Creek canyon to carve and build the eagle for the gate spanning State Street. The original, eventually copper- plated in Chicago, rests now in the D.U.P. museum.

Notice the blacksmith-forged chains in front of the house attached to granite pillars. Photos from the 1860's show these items in existence then. The east wall around the house was jacked up and moved about feet west when this block of State Street was widened.

Inside, the pine woodwork has been stained to look like hardwood and marble. Half- hour guided tours are available daily, 9:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. (10:30 - 1:00 Sundays).

37. LION HOUSE: Completed in the drought year of 1856, two years after the Beehive House, this 2.5-story Gothic Revival adobe structure takes its name from the couchant lion on top of the front porch (sculpted by young assistant church architect William Ward) and Brigham Young's epithet "Lion of the Lord." Note the shuttered windows, tall chimneys, and tile roof; east and west exposures are topped with ten steep-roofed gables.

Young, who had fifty-five wives and 57 children (State Archivist, Jeff Johnson's research of primary LDS sources), intended the house as an example of the way such marital arrangements could be managed, though only a few of his wives lived here. The main floor contained bedrooms and parlors for twelve wives and young children, the second floor bedrooms for childless wives, the upper floor twenty children's bedrooms. A spacious, enclosed west porch served as a recreation area. A dining room seated seventy-five people. Wooden pipes carried waste water from the sinks to the outside, a big help to the kitchen help. Separate privies for males and females were attached to the rear. A large laundry room with an open fire and cauldrons operated twenty-four hours a day. School was also held in one of the large rooms until Brigham built his own private school house across the street to the east. Notice the rough-faced stone foundation. The stone posts and chains in front are original. Brigham died here, August 29, 1877.

"Early to bed and early to rise" was a proverb Brigham Young did not follow. Wrote his daughter, Susa Young Gates, "The day's work for father did not begin till after 9 o'clock ... [and] he seldom retired before midnight ... The rule of eight hours' sleep, eight hours' work, and eight hours' recreation was a plan he himself carried out fairly well."

38. L.D.S. CHURCH ADMINISTRATION OFFICE: This building, completed in t917 at a cost of more than $1 million, houses the presiding officers of the Mormon church and their staffs. It sits near the site of Brigham's first home. It is an example of Neo-Classical Revival architecture, with twenty-four Greek Ionic columns weighing eight tons each. The building is constructed of steel and concrete faced with Utah granite. The interior is adorned with Russian walnut, marble, onyx, and oriental rugs. Admission is restricted to church officers and their guests.

Only one woman has been officed in this building, sometimes referred to as the "thirteenth apostle." This was Susa Young Gates, Brigham Young's daughter by wife number 42, Lucy Bigelow, whom he married while crossing the plains the second time. Susa married Alma Dunford, a dentist, divorced him, and married Jacob Gates. During the 1910-20's she was on the women's Relief Society general board, founded the Relief Society Magazine and the Young Woman's Journal, and was a delegate to the International Council of Women in London and Copenhagen.

The Mint (1848-49) /Deseret News Office (1850- 52): Just east of the Church Administration Building was the Deseret Mint, where Utah's first gold coins ($20, $10, $5, and $2.50) were produced in 18481849. Only a few hundred coins were minted. The Mormons were out of gold and the U.S. established a mint in San Francisco in 1854, so no more coins were minted. The original adobe building had a single room, a front door and two windows. It was so small and crowded, one person said it was easier to get onto than into. A sketch of the building was made for a news article prior to its demolition around 1900. (An inaccurate two-room replica representing the old Mint Building is located in Old Deseret Village at This is the Place State Park.)

The Deseret News: The first issue of the Deseret News was produced in the Mint building on 15 June 1850, using a small Adam Ramage hand press (now in the LDS Church History Museum). The Deseret News was the intermountain West's first newspaper, and among the first published west of the Mississippi River. The staff consisted of a typesetter, proofreader, pressman, and editor/writer.

The first editor and publisher of the Deseret News was Dr. Willard Richards, Church Historian, and counselor to Brigham Young. He was asked by Brigham Young to start a newspaper to keep the Mormon colonists in touch with the outside world. The newspaper was published once each week. He remained the publisher until his death in 1854.

He was followed by Albert Carrington (1854- 59, 1863-67). Carrington previously assisted Captain Stansbury, US. Army, who surveyed the Great Salt Lake in 1849-50. For that work, Stansbury named one of the islands in the Great Lake after him (Carrington Island). In 1848 Carrington bought one of the best log cabins from the pioneer fort in 1847 from Osmyn Deuel, moved it to the southeast corner of 100 North and West Temple Streets. Later it was given to the Church. It sits now between the Church History Museum and the Genealogical Library west of Temple Square. Carrington reported the news about Johnston's Army in the Utah War. He was the first to introduce illustrations to the "News." They were very simple designs of a beehive, horse- drawn cart, and a stove-pipe hat.

When he took over the second time (1863) Carrington hired the Scotsman, T. B. H. Stenhouse, as an assistant editor. Stenhouse was a seasoned journalist for the New York Herald and other New York publications and made a significant contribution to Utah history. He also hired Scipio "Scip" Africanus Kenner, a 14-year old boy from Missouri, as an apprentice. Scip caught on fast. He became an outstanding writer and eventually held at one time or another every position at the "News." Elias Smith was the editor between the two terms of Albert Carrington (1859-63).

In 1852, the "News" moved to the corner west of the mint and occupied a room in the 3- story adobe "Deseret Store" (part of the tithing compound, where the Joseph Smith Memorial Building is located). In 1856 the paper moved to the Council House. In 1863 the paper moved back into the Deseret Store building and remained there 40 more years. A two-story building was built to the east of the Deseret Store to house the larger printing presses.

In, 1902 a new building was built for the Deseret News on the southwest corner of South Temple and Main Streets. The first building to occupy this spot was the Council House, the first public building i the Utah Territory. An explosion and fire destroyed it and Charles R. Savage's photo shop to the south. In 1926, the Deseret News moved a half block west to a new 4-story building (it needed room for its newer, larger presses) on Richard Street, where it stayed until 1968. Richard Street was named after the New's first publisher, Willard Richards, who owned property here. Willard was buried for a time on that property.

The Oregon Shortline Railroad had its offices here. When the Union Pacific Railroad acquired the Oregon Shortline, the building became known as the Union Pacific Building. Walgreen's Drug Store occupied the bottom floor, displacing the Deseret News Bookstore.

It was here in a tin shack on the roof on May 6, 1922, at 3 P.M. that Harry "Flash" Wilson spoke the first words from a radio transmitter. "Hello, Hello. Hello. This is KZN. KZN, the Deseret News, Salt Lake City, calling. KZN calling. Greetings! The Deseret News sends its greetings to all of you far and wide." (The first radio broadcast, ever, was produced in Pittsburgh by the Westinghouse Corporation in 1920.) The Deseret News published the event well in advance to give perspective listeners time to purchase small galena crystal sets, complete with ear phones and "cat's whiskers" to enable them to tune in.

The first official speaker was President Heber J. Grant of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which owns Deseret News. He had, ironically, earlier declined to advance the $25,000 requested by newspaper officials to pursue their quest for radio. He thought it was too steep a price to pay to American Telephone and Telegraph, which had a virtual monopoly on radio transmitters at the time.

Within days, KDYL built by Ira J. Kaar for The Salt Lake Telegram, was also on the air. KZN and KDYL became KSL and KCPX, respectively.

Zions Securities, the real-estate arm of the LDS Church, traded land that is now part of City Creek Park to Salt Lake City for the land under Main Street, south of the intersection, for use as a parking garage for the new 18-story "Gateway Tower West" that will be completed in 1998. It will have 280,000 feet of "Class A" office space, meaning it is less than 10 years old, is larger than 80,000 square feet in size, and charges $17 per square foot and up for space.

39. JOSEPH SMITH MEMORIAL BUILDING (formerly the Hotel Utah): Located on ground where the original tithing house and Deseret Store (bishop's storehouse) and Deseret News newspaper (second floor) were located. Deseret (pronounced dez'-er-et') is a term taken from Mormon scripture, the Book of Mormon, and means "honey bee." This 10-story hotel was operated by the church from 1911 until 1987 when it was remodeled as church office space. It reopened in 1993. In the richly decorated lobby you will see new marble floors, faux-marble columns, brass banisters, rococo plaster ceiling decoration, and original art-glass skylight. The large statue of Joseph Smith is a copy of a Mahonri Young bronze. At the north end of the lobby are elevators to the tenth-floor Roof Café (smorgasbord, with retractable skylight) and Garden restaurant (no coffee or alcohol), as well as observation areas. The view of Temple Square is panoramic.

On east side of the mezzanine level is a chapel (formerly the Lafayette Ballroom) which services three downtown L.D.S. congregations.

From the lobby the hallway west leads to the north end of the building and a wide-screen theater for about 700 persons. The movie Legacy is based loosely on the diary and experiences of a frontier woman, Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, a polygamous wife of Joseph Smith and, after his death, the 21st wife of Brigham Young. Tickets are free but necessary. Below the lobby to the north is the Family Search Center. A staff of 200 volunteers and 130 computer workstations will help you construct your "pedigree" or family tree through the world's largest genealogical data base and provide you with a printout.

Livingston, Bell & Co. (About where entrance to Mervyns is): The first commercial building in Salt Lake City was that of Livingston & Bell (and later Kinkead). They sold goods out of John Pack's house on the southwest corner of West Temple and First North about 1849. The next year they built a store on the south end of property first deeded to Brigham Young (his 1/8 of a block).

40. FACADE FROM 1869 ASMUSSEN JEWELRY COMPANY (originally south, about 175 feet north of First South): The Key Bank façade was partially salvaged from the Asmussen's jewelry building, designed by William Folsom, that stood a little north. The building had a balcony which was used as a bandstand for afternoon concerts. The second floor was the residence of Carl Asmussen and his three wives. Of 18 children, the youngest, Flora, became wife of Mormon Church President, Ezra Taft Benson.

About Carl Christian Asmussen: He was born near Copenhagen, Denmark, May 20, 1825. Rejecting his father's trade as sea captain, he became a jeweler and wutch maker. He established himself as a watchmaker in Germany and Holland and one time was court jeweler to the Czar of Russia. He even did a bit of dentistry. He went to Christchurch, New Zealand, and became somewhat wealthy. On the street, one day in 1864, he found a copy of Parley P. Pratt's tract, "A Voice of Warning." (The first missionaries to New Zealand came from Australia in 1854.) He read and accepted the message as true. On the back of the tract was the address of the Church in Liverpool, England. Thinking that was where the headquarters of the Church was, he left his business and went to Liverpool, England, to find the Church. There he was baptized by Elisha H. Groves and immigrated the next year to Utah in the Willis Company with 112 other adults and children from 15 families in one of the Church Trains.

On the advice of Brigham Young, he purchased property (on Brigham's original lot on the northeast section of the block south of Temple Square - close to the Globe Saloon) for a store. He was sent back to New Zealand on a mission, 1866- 68, where he baptized two brothers, William and James Burnett. He arrived in Utah in 1868 and arranged 3 wagon loads of supplies from the States. He also met and married, at age 43, his first wife, Anna Katrine Nielsen, also from Denmark. When his new store was finished in 1869, they moved into the second floor.

In 1879-80, he served a mission to Denmark. On Nov. 6, 1884, at age 59, he married his second wife, Martha M. Smith, and the next year, he married his 3rd wife, Barbara McIsaac Smith. He legally changed his name from Asmussen to Amussen in 1886 (one might guess the reason). He began investing in real estate in Logan, Utah, and relocated his families there in 1890, where he died in 1902. His wife Barbara spent 23 years officiating in the Logan Temple and one Friday announced that she would be leaving mortal life the next Thursday. She had had a dream or a vision of her husband telling her it was her time to go (and she did).

The last of Carl's 18 children (mother, Barbara Smith) was Flora Smith Amussen, who married Ezra T. Benson in 1926 after a 7-year courtship and mu missions. He became the 13th President of the LDS Church. Ironically, Ezra's grandfather, Ezra T. Benson, was sent to Cache Valley by Brigham the same year he finished a lovely home right across the street from where Asmussen built his jewelry store. The home was occupied by Daniel H. Wells. Later, the Templeton Hotel was built on that same corner.

Globe Saloon [Restaurant] (about 3545 South Main): In August, 1856 (while the first 5 handcart companies were on their way to Utah and the Beehive House was completed), David Candland, ex-missionary and husband to 7 wives, wrote in his journal: "The Presidency of the Church proposed my opening a saloon [meaning restaurant] on first rate principles. I cheerfully consented and the church will model and build additions etc. to the order belonging to Brigham Young. I commenced and with the assistance of some others soon dug the foundation." This was about a fourth of the way down the block and accommodated a barber shop and bakery.

November 1856 (the Willie Handcart Company arrived in the city on the 9h): "This month opened the Saloon under the name of The Globe ... The Governor by invitation visited the rooms and expressed his satisfaction of the same. Our prospects for doing a fair business [is good] although times are dull."

November 1857: "Pres. Young took a tripe dinner at the Globe with his sons & friends. Our cook Sister Jarrett improves in her line."

February 1858: "Business continues very dull with us. People are all engaged some way or other in preparations for the war (Utah War; Johnston's Army).

March 1858: "1 was introduced to Col. [Thomas L.] Kane by his calling at the Globe. I esteem it an honor. He expended five dollars in candies as a present from him to some youthful choristers. He is remarkably urbane etc." (The Globe was closed for several months while the pioneers fled south to escape any conflict with the army.)

September 1858: "My trade increasing. Suppers are becoming popular at the Globe. I had a difficult time with a Mr. McNiels who came into the Globe drunk and made too much noise. I gave him in charge of the Police which resulted in a fine of $50 and 3 months imprisonment, the latter part Gov. Cummings remitted."

On September 11, 1858, the New York magazine "Harper's Weekly published an article by one of its correspondents that stayed some time at the Globe that summer. Some negative comments were made regarding Candland's creative method of charging (more like gouging) the gentile customers, especially if they had money. He did say the Candland Saloon would be etched in the memory of gentiles who had been in Salt Lake City in 1858. "For a long time that was the only house in all Salt Lake City where a man who was so wicked as to be a Gentile could obtain a mouthful to eat. ... When the Gentiles began to flock in here this spring, he [Brigham Young] took this saloon and put a man in it to feed us at exorbitant prices, at the same time forbidding everyone else from giving us food or shelter."

Getting ready for breakfast: The correspondent continued: "It was very amusing to behold the scene that followed the ringing of the first bell for breakfast at Candland's. Gentiles in every kind of dress or undress could be seen evolving themselves from every imaginable place - from carriages, from under trees, from off the plaza, from off the sidewalks and from out of the gardens - all making their way to the gutter to wash. To wash in the gutter? Yes, to wash in the gutter.. It is beautiful, clear water from its original course and sent tumbling along down either side of all the streets that run north and south. The people obtain their water out of these gutter-brooks, which are likewise used for irrigating purposes. ...Well, when the Gentiles have crawled out from their holes, each takes his soap, towel, comb, toothbrush, and a small pocket looking-glass and makes toilet at the gutter. ...Each person then straps up his blankets or bedding; after which and breakfast, he is ready to travel sixty or eighty miles during the day, or to live lying around loose outdoors."

[More from Candland's Journal] October 1858: "Numbers of boarders increased during the last few days. From the papers East I see myself spoken about sometimes favorable and sometimes not..."

In June of 1860, he was requested by Territorial Surveyor General Stambaugh to provide a champagne supper for 12 to 15 persons and gave Stambaugh a bill for $78.75. Rather than pay, Stambaugh insulted Candland and threatened to "cane" him. Whereupon Candland "seized him by the throat, wrenched the cane from his hand and aimed a blow at his head." Candland "commenced a suit to recover the amount before Justice Gibbs." After more abuse and difficulty, Candland obtained the money owed him and "closed the Globe determined in my own mind that my association in any way shall be at an end with the gentile population." (He moved to Sanpete County where he died in 1902.) The Globe, the post office, and Livingston's building were later absorbed by the larger two-story "Constitution Building."

41. TEMPLE SQUARE (southeast corner to west gate):

C.R. Savage Monument: On the corner is a bust of C.R. Savage, pioneer photographer, whose studio %,as the first commercial building south of here (the old City Hall, which burned down was on the corner). Savage organized the popular "Old Folks Day," an annual event to get lonely, elderly people out to a major social event.

The 13-foot high adobe wall around the temple rests on a red sandstone base and was stuccoed to preserve and enhance its appearance. Its construction provided security as well as something new emigrants could to do in trade for food until they could get established.

Base/meridian Marker: This location (Latitude 40 brick 46' 04"; Longitude 111 54' 00"; Altitude 4327.27 feet), fixed by Orson Pratt less than two weeks after the pioneers first arrived in the Valley, defines the boundaries of Temple Square and serves as the originating point for the city's street numbering system. The federal government created a surveying district for the Territory of Utah and appointed David H. Burr to be the surveyor general for the territory. He arrived in Utah, July 27, t855, and by September 30, placed a stone marker at the

initial point of his survey (same place Pratt and Sherwood plated the city from) and ran base and meridian lines to points located nearly 4 miles east, 36 miles west, 84 miles north, and 72 miles south from this initial point. The original sandstone marker was moved a few years ago to the Museum of Church History and Art, to prevent further weathering, and replaced with a replica.

Due north is Ensign Peak. (Brigham Young was shown Ensign Peak in vision he had in the Nauvoo Temple. The martyred Joseph Smith appeared to him and told him to build his city in the spot where he saw the colors of an ensign [flag shown in vision] rest. He was looking for this peak when he came into the valley.

On July 26, he indicated to Wilford Woodruff the exact spot where the temple would be built, then later he, in company with the other apostles, climbed the peak and raised an ensign [makeshift flag] to the nations, in their minds to fulfill the prophet Isaiah's prophecy. It was here, July 28, that Brigham told all assembled in the valley that the city would be laid out from this spot, the blocks and streets would be the size they are and numbered the way they are now, among other things. It was here that Orson Pratt and Henry G. Sherwood began platting the city on August 2nd.

Brigham Young Monument: This statue was created by Springville, Utah, sculptor Cyrus Dallin. This and the angel Moroni atop the LDS Temple were commissioned by church president, Wilford Woodruff. Cyrus also did the statue of Massassoit, the Iroquois Indian in front of the state capitol building. On the west is the Hudson Bay trapper, Peter Skene Ogden, and on the east is the Shoshone Indian Chief, Washakie, a friend to the early settlers.

The statue of Brigham Young was first displayed at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair and then stood on a temporary pedestal on Temple Square until 1897. It was then moved to the center of the intersection of Main and South Temple Streets and placed on a new pedestal. A specially-built wagon, pulled by 12 horses, brought the huge pedestal from the granite quarry in Little Cottonwood Canyon. Ogden and Washakie were added to the monument as originally intended.

The monument was moved to its current location in 1994 to relieve congestion and allow pedestrians a closer look. The names of the vanguard company are listed on the north side. They include 140 free men, three women, two children (Harriet Wheeler Young's), and three "colored servants." One of the servants, Green Flake, drove Young's carriage into the valley (Brigham was riding in Wilford Woodruff's wagon) and was later given to Young as tithing.

Cedar of Lebanon Tree: Just north of the east of Temple Square (next to the wall) is a Cedar of Lebanon tree brought from the Middle East in 1949. From such trees King Solomon built a temple and his house. A Cedar of Lebanon is characterized by its light red, fragrant and durable wood. It is also noted for the size of its trunk and differs from most coniferous evergreen trees in that its branches are widespread. Lightening struck close by and severely damaged the tree years ago. Peter Lassig, head gardener for the LDS Church, performed surgery on it and nursed it back to full vigor.

United States Meridian Base, 1869 (inside Temple Square, southeast corner): In 1869, George W. Dean, of the U.S. Geologic Survey built an astronomical observatory (small cabin with roof able to open up) to determine true latitude and longitude. It was used until Dec 30, 1897, to obtain the correct time. (This could be done to the second by observing the immersion and emersion of Jupiter's moons and other celestial bodies.)

Orson Pratt grew up in a poor family and was mostly self-educated. He taught himself astronomy, algebra, geometry, integral and differential calculus. Modern equipment found Pratt's calculations to be remarkably accurate. Stories appear indicating that the observatory was for Orson Pratt, but Randy Dixon (LDS Historical Department) has been unable to find any primary sources linking Pratt to the observatory. The building was demolished in 1909.

Joseph And Hyrum Smith Statues: The sculptor of these two pieces, originally designed for the niches on either side of the stairs leading to the east entrance of the temple, was Mahonri Mackintosh Young, born in Salt Lake City on Aug. 9, 1877, just prior to the death of his grandfather, Brigham Young.

While recovering from an attack of appendicitis at age five, Young's father, whittled shapes out of wood to amuse his son. The boy was inspired by the wood shapes and began sculpting birds and other animals in clay, which he harvested from nearby creek beds near their home in the mouth of Parley's Canyon.

Young took private art lessons from the Paris-trained artist J. T. Harwood and studied drawing for two years under Kenyon Cox at the Art Students League in New York. From 1901- 1903, he was enrolled at the Julian Academy in Paris, where he studied drawing. His first sculpting commission back in the states was for the Utah State Fair, where he was asked to model a lady out of butter for the Fox Creamery. Just as "The Dairy Maid" was nearing completion, someone left the refrigerator door open and she melted. Unperturbed, Young put the butter back into the refrigerator and re-shaped the figure. He made $25 for his efforts.

Young's next commission was to sculpt a statue of Joseph Smith for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. His first attempt was a failure, but his second was a success. Later, the Church requested a companion statue of Joseph's brother, Hyrum. Young's most famous work was the This is the Place Monument, created in 1947 to celebrate the centennial of the arrival of the Mormon pioneers into the Salt Lake Valley.

Leftover Granite Stone with Drill Marks (along walkway, north of the statues): Granite stones were quarried to rough specifications at the quarry in the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon, 30 miles or so away. On the temple grounds, stone masons would reduce the rough cut to the exact size and smoothness necessary for final placement. The Assembly Hall in the southwest corner was constructed using a lot of rejected stone from the temple.

Salt Lake Temple: Begun in 1853, it was completed in 1893 at a cost of $4 million. The granite blocks, 3 tons each, were transported from Little Cottonwood Canyon, 20 miles to the south, by ox teams and later by railroad. Architect, Truman Angell, had no formal education as an architect and only two years of formal schooling. The basic structure was dictated by Brigham Young based on revelation regarding the matter. Construction was stopped during the Utah War of 1857, during the building of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific rail lines, which diverted laborers, and again in the 1880s when church property was confiscated by the federal government (Edmunds- Tucker Act) because of the practice of polygamy.

The 12.5 foot statue of Moroni (a Book of Mormon prophet) weighs 1.5 tons, is gold-leafed, stands 210 feet in the air, and was sculpted by Cyrus Dallin. Cyrus' mother was a Mormon, his father was not. He refused the commission from church president, Wilford Woodruff, at first saying he did not believe in angels. His mother put pressure on him saying that Cyrus had referred to her as his angel mother. He relented, changed the style from a weather vane representation of the angel Moroni flying to one standing. A close inspection will reveal feminine features in contrast to the masculine features Cyrus used for his sculpture of Massassoit.

American Elms (main north-south walkway): In 1983 all the American Elm trees in the Salt Lake Valley were succumbing to the Dutch Elm disease. Dr. Gary Strobel, a Church member from Montana State University, suggested inoculating each of the elms on Temple Square. Peter Lassig found the veins of each tree and performed the inoculation, claiming the trees "actually slurped it up." One of the other few surviving American Elms is located at Taufer Park (corner of 300 East and 700 South). In 1996, Graciela Garcia, who lives in the Phillips Towers, a low-income housing project for the elderly, went public with what was then her secret - that the Virgin Mary appeared in the stump of an elm branch that had been pruned and was weeping. The city built a stairway and people come daily to witness the event and pray. Taufer Park is a pocket park created by Salt Lake City to honor Justin E. Taufer, a 67-year-old Mormon bishop, who was shot 9 times and killed as he rescued a woman from the clutches of a rapist.

Seagull Monument: Only monument in the world to seagulls. Commemorates the miracle of 1848, when seagulls ate crickets which threatened to destroy the pioneer's first crops. Mahonri M. Young, Brigham Young's grandson is the sculptor. The real art work are the four bas-relief panels around the base. "Hon" Young was also the sculptor of hired to produce "This is the Place Monument" at the mouth of Emigration Canyon.

The Tabernacle: The first structure in the Salt Lake Valley was an open-sided bowery, with wooden posts supporting a roof of leafy boughs and dirt. Two or three were built where the tabernacle is located. The first tabernacle was built in 1851-2 with low adobe walls, a gabled roof and a floor below ground. It was located where the Assembly hall is now. With a seating capacity of 2,500, the Old Tabernacle soon became inadequate for congregations at general conferences, and beginning in 1854, the conferences were again held outdoors.

In April Conference, 1863, Brigham Young's second counselor, Daniel H. Wells, announced that: "Right here, we want to build a tabernacle to accommodate the saints at our general conference and religious worship that will comfortably seat 10,000 people." Brigham wanted the roof to be self supporting, with the view of the pulpit unobstructed by pillars or posts. Henry Grow, a convert from Pennsylvania who had built bridges over the Weber and Jordan Rivers, was appointed to design the roof. He adapted his bridge-building technique, using lattice trusses to form huge elliptical arches that spanned the entire width without intermediate supports. 1.5 million board feet of lumber was hauled from the Wasatch canyons. If the lumber began to split, it was wrapped with green rawhide, which shrank as it aged. Each of the massive beams was bent to form by steaming it and weighting it at both ends until the desired curve was achieved. The beam was then set in cold water. William H. Folsom and Truman 0. Angell were the architects.

The first meeting held inside was in 1872. Three years later, the tabernacle was fitted with a gallery which increased the seating from 7,000 to about 10,000 persons. John Taylor dedicated in on October 4, 1875. The shingle roof was replaced with copper at the turn of the Century and replaced, again, by aluminum in 1947. In 1968 a full basement was dug underneath for mechanical equipment, television broadcasting and translation. As the rostrum moved further into the center to accommodate more General Authorities of the Church, and the benches were spaced further apart, the seating capacity was further reduced. It now seats between 5,000 and 6,000 persons.

The building still ranks as one of the largest works of timber-roof framing in the world, and the only one in which arched lattice trusses are the primary supports. In 1971, the Tabernacle was designated as a national civil engineering landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers, the first building in country to be so named.

The organ designed and built by English carpenter, Joseph Ridges, was first used in 1867. Ridges and as many as one hundred workers worked from 1863 until 1867 to build the organ. The best wood was found around Parowan and in the Pine Valley (northwest of St. George). It was white pine, with few knots and not much tar and gum. The organ has been remodeled numerous times over the years. Theoretically, pipes don't wear out. The machinery behind the pipes does. All that remains of Ridge's original 1,600-pipe instrument are the four imposing towers containing 10 gilded wooden pipes, which still function, plus two other stops inside the organ. A major rebuild occurred in 1948 by the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co. of Boston. The last rebuild was a 4-year project from 1984-1988 that converted electropneumatic key-relay and switching system to solid-state circuit boards. General settings increased from 20 actual to 17,800 potential. The instrument was expanded to 11,623 pipes in 206 ranks making it the world's 12th largest organ. To add more "umph" to five pedal stops, 11 loud speakers were installed in 1995, which play digitally sampled tones in unison with the pipes involved. The console is air-conditioned, swivels on a ball-bearing turn table that a child can push around. The lights inside the tabernacle and the Nauvoo bell outside can be controlled by the organist.

Nauvoo Bell (south of west gate): The Nauvoo Bell originally hung in the Nauvoo Temple (Illinois). It was taken to Winter Quarters in 1846 and brought to the valley in 1847 in the second company, also known as the "Big Company" (about 1,600 persons) led by John Taylor and Parley P. Pratt.

Water archway (next to the sidewalk, north of the west entrance): Before being bricked in, the small arch allowed water from City Creek, used in powering equipment on the premises and the organ bellows, to exit.

Family History Library (35 North West Temple Street): Open to the public, this 5story building houses one of the largest book and microfilm libraries in the world regarding genealogical information from various countries. Numerous volunteers are available to answer questions.

42. DEUEL-CARRINGTON 1847 CABIN (between the Family History Library and LDS Church History Museum): One of two surviving log cabins built by Mormon pioneers their first year in the valley (the other is located at "This is the Place" State Park). Osmyn Deuel and his brother, William, were blacksmiths and relatively well off when they came to Utah in spite of frequent relocations with the Church since 1831. Rather than build their own cabins, they purchased three identical homes for $60 each. Two were used as homes for the two families and the third was turned into a blacksmith shop. This cabin was perhaps the best quality available in the fort that year. It had wooden plank flooring (as opposed to dirt that most had) and a glass window. Its quality may have been the biggest reason for keeping it around. This 15 by 20 foot cabin was located in the north extension to the main fort. It was used as an armory in 1848 and sold the next year to Albert Carrington (Carrington Island named in his honor for helping Capt. Stansbury survey the Great Salt Lake, 1949-50). Carrington moved it to the southeast corner of 100 North and West Temple Streets. It was subsequently relocated to the southeast corner of Temple Square and finally to its current location when the buildings north and south of it were completed. The Deuel family relocated in Davis County somewhere in the vicinity of Deuel Creek.

43. MUSEUM OF (LDS) CHURCH HISTORY AND ART (45 North West Temple Street): The museum boasts a variety of changing displays featuring samples from its 10,000-artifact collection. The main floor features artifacts from the Church's beginning in 1820 through the l9th-Century in Utah and a bookstore. A cassette tape, self-guided tour is available at the front desk. Items of note frequently overlooked include the scientific instruments used by Orson Pratt and the vanguard company cistern barometer, thermometer, sextants, telescope, and theodolite [surveyor's instrument for measuring vertical or horizontal angles], Wilford Woodruff's fly fishing rod (first used in the Great Basis), Thomas Bullock's sketches of the trek (he was the official trek historian), also Bullock's drafting instruments to record the city plat, and the surveying tools used by Jesse Fox, who surveyed the county, mapped out canals, roads, and other improvements along the Wasatch Front, adobe construction bricks, Crismon Mill stones, paving bricks from South Temple Street, wooden irrigation pipe, l4th Ward Chapel, and a good (long) look at the city as it was in 1869.

This and the second-floor exhibit on church prophets from Joseph Smith remain constant. The basement has a film auditorium and some art work. The main art display area is on the second floor and changes every few months. This is also where special events are
commemorated, like the 100th anniversary of the dedication of the Salt Lake Temple, the 150th anniversary of Joseph and Hyrum Smith's martyrdom, the annual art contest, etc. Open weekdays from 9 a.m. - 9 p.m.; weekends 10 a.m. - 7 p.m.

New Assembly Hall (LDS Church, block north of Temple Square): Construction is scheduled to be completed for April Conference in the year 2000. It is being built into the ground to avoid blocking the view from surrounding neighbors. It was supposed to seat 26,000 persons, but church leaders felt that was "too" big. It was recently scaled back to a "more intimate" 21,000. The redesign delayed the project 3 months, but Pres. Hinckley is holding to his deadline.

Pres. Hinckley wants to have superior acoustics, so the usual exposed steel-beam ceilings customarily employed in large arenas won't be used. The ceiling will be an actual, shaped ceiling, with no support pillars in the interior of the hall. To provide strength, the footings for the 80-foot high columns on its edges will be no less than 12 feet thick.

44. KIMBALL/WHITNEY CEMETERY: One of two private cemeteries in the city, the cemetery is located in the middle of the block north of the Church Office Building. A drive entrance is on Gordon Place. This is simply a narrow driveway between two houses on the west side of State Street, half way between North Temple and First North Streets. Drive west between the houses and you will find parking in the rear of each house and entrance to a small park, owned and maintained by the LDS Church. The cemetery is in the northwest corner of the park. Access (but not parking) is also possible from Main Street. The alley way between the Kimball Apartments is a public walkway. This was the first private plot of ground in Salt Lake Valley formally dedicated as a burial ground. It was on a hill back of the old Kimball Homestead which faced Main Street. In the fall of 1848, Heber and Newell K. Whitney dedicated this spot of ground to the Lord as a private cemetery for the two families. Newell Whitney's family occupied land where the Church Relief Society building is located on the northwest corner of Main and North Temple Streets.

Newell's wife, Ann Houston "Mother" Whitney was the first to be buried here, November of 1848. Two years later, Newell, himself, became the 6th person to occupy the cemetery. Heber, Vilate, and Ellen Sanders Kimball, one of the first 3 women to enter the valley, are buried here. There are 56 persons resting in the cemetery: 33 Kimballs, 13 Whitneys, and 10 others, including hired help, friends, and 2 Indians.

When Solomon Kimball returned from Arizona in 1886, he found the cemetery in a neglected condition. There was no fence around it. Nine-tenths of the graves could not be identified. Worse yet, the property was in the hands of 4 different people, each of whom was determined to commercialize it. Soon after, he found that it had been sold for taxes. He took matters in hand and discovered an old territorial law that exempted all burial places from taxation. He did not cease his labors until the titles were in possession of the Kimball family and a right-of-way was obtained to Main Street. A good iron fence was placed around the property. Four of the lots which belonged to Heber C. Kimball's estate were found which had been overlooked by the administrators. Proceeds from the sale of these lots brought $3,000 which was used to beautify and improve the cemetery. Lawn and beautiful evergreen trees were planted and a caretaker, John Drakeford, hired. Mr. Drakeford served in this capacity for many years.

Solomon went before the city council who granted the perpetual right to allow the honored dead to remain there on condition that the family improve, beautify, and take care of this piece of property and allow no more internments to be made there.

Solomon F. Kimball was manager and custodian of the Kimball & Whitney Cemetery for 25 years. During that time it was kept up by donations from members of the Kimball and Whitney families. Annual reports were mailed to members of the families listing donations and expenditures and each contained poems, photographs, and short sketches of those buried in the cemetery. Alice Kimball and Annie Kimball Knox, daughters of Heber, were the next custodians, followed by Joseph Kimball, then J. Golden Kimball. It was through the efforts of J. Golden that the Latter-day Saints assumed perpetual care of the Kimball & Whitney Cemetery.

When the LDS Church proposed making the area around the cemetery a park, local residents complained until the Church offered to also restore the 4 properties it purchased on both sides of Gordon Place. The landscape was not completed until 1994. The price of restoring two of the old houses on State Street (each side of Gordon Place) was in the range of a million dollars, about twice what the homes could have been replaced for. The Church balked at finishing the other two, but the city pressured the Church into following through with earlier promises since it was important to the city to preserve the historic nature of the neighborhood. Lady missionaries assigned to Temple Square now occupy the homes.

Heber Chase Kimball was one of the original pioneers of Utah. He was ordained an Apostle February 14, 1835, under the hands of Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and Martin Harris. He was the first apostle sent to England on a mission. After helping to establish the headquarters of the Church in Great Salt Lake Valley, he returned with Pres. Brigham Young to Winter Quarters, and when the presidency of the Church was reorganized on Dec. 24, 1847, Brother Kimball was selected and set apart as first counselor to Pres. Brigham Young, which position he held until his death (1868).

He was the husband of 45 wives and the father of 65 children. He had children by seventeen of his wives. Heber had forty-five sons (sixteen named Heber) and twenty daughters. He married five sets of sisters. (Some Mormons hoped sororal polygamy would lead to greater domestic harmony.) Fourteen of his wives had been married previously (including Mary Fielding Smith). At the time of marriage, nine of his wives were in their teens, seventeen in their twenties, five in their thirties, nine in their forties, and three in their fifties. Sixteen wives separated from him during his lifetime for various reasons, but none of his widows remarried after his death. Forty-one children and at least twenty-one wives survived him.

Newell Khnbafl Whitney, born in Vermont, 1795, was the second Bishop in the Church (Edward Partridge was the first) and store owner (especially in Kirtland, where Joseph Smith conducted the School of the Prophets). He married Elizabeth Ann Smith, a native of Connecticut, who was living in Kirtland, Ohio. Joseph Smith trusted him implicitly, not only in monetary matters, in which he often consulted him, but with many of his most secret thoughts, which he could confide but to few.

The friendship and intimacy existing between the Prophet and Bishop Whitney was strengthened and intensified by the giving in marriage to the former of the latter's eldest daughter, Sarah, in obedience to a revelation from God. This girl was but seventeen years of age, but she had implicit faith. She was the first woman, in this dispensation, given in plural marriage by and with the consent of both parents. Her father himself officiated in the ceremony.The revelation commanding and consecrating this union is in existence, though it has never been published, according to one of Newel's grandson. It bears the date July 27, 1842, and was given through the Prophet to Newel K. Whitney, whose daughter Sarah became the wife of Joseph Smith for time and all eternity.

The ceremony preceded by nearly a year the written document of the revelation on celestial marriage, first committed to paper July 12, 1843. But the principle itself was made known to Joseph some years earlier. Among the secrets confided by him to Bishop Whitney in Kirtland, was a knowledge of this self-same principle, which he declared would yet be received and practiced by the Church; a doctrine so far in advance of the ideas and traditions of the Saints themselves, to say nothing of the Gentile world, that he was "obliged to use the utmost caution, lest some of his best and dearest friends should impute to him improper motives."

The original manuscript of the revelation on plural marriage, as taken down by William Clayton, the Prophet's scribe, was given by Joseph to Bishop Whitney for safe keeping. He retained possession of it until the Prophet's wife Emma, having persuaded her husband to let her see it, on receiving it from his hands, threw it into the fire and destroyed it. Bishop Whitney, foreseeing the probable fate of the manuscript, had taken the precaution before delivering it up, to have it copied by his clerk, the late Joseph C. Kingsbury, who executed the task under his personal supervision. It was this same copy of the original that Bishop Whitney surrendered to President Brigham Young at Winter Quarters in 1846-7, and from that document "polygamy" was published to the world in the year 1852.

With the death of Joseph Smith, Bishop Whitney was given the added responsibility of Trustee-in-Trust for the Church. The office continued with Bishop Whitney until his death. From Winter Quarters in the spring of 1847, two of his sons, Horace K. and Orson K., went west with the Pioneers. He himself remained where his services were most needed, having charge, in conjunction with Isaac Morley, of emigration matters on the frontier. The year following he led a company of Saints across the plains to Salt Lake valley, arriving on the eighth of October. As his wagons rolled into the settlement, the general conference of the Church was just closing.

On the morning of Monday, September 23, 1850, an anxious group was gathered about the doorway of an unpretentious abode on City Creek, in what is still known as the Eighteenth Ward. Presidents Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and others were there, exerting their faith that God will spare the life of Brother Whitney.

Two days before Whitney had returned from the Temple Block, where the labors of the Bishopric occupied much of his attention, complaining of a severe pain in his left side. It was pronounced bilious pleurisy. He never recovered, but grew rapidly worse during the remaining thirty- six hours of his mortal existence.

Regarding his father, his son Orson E Whitney said, "It was ever more gratifying to him to pay a debt than to contract one, and when all his debts were paid he was a happy man, though he had nothing left but his own moral and muscular energy."

45. CITY CREEK PARK (Northeast corner of State and North Temple Streets): This 1.7 acre city park, dedicated Oct. 14, 1995, extends up the south end of Memory Grove, which was dedicated in 1924. Before Memory Grove was created, P.J. Moran ran a sand and gravel pit on the west side of City Creek. Moran's company did much of the early cement work in the city. The park generally follows the original creek bed, past Charles Crismon's first grist mill in the valley. Walking the paths of the park is fun and educational as 30 birds and 41 mammals indigenous to the area are identified in cement, all the mammals with foot prints. Notice the 4x and 2x markings (meaning 4 or 2 times normal size). Have students identify the largest and the smallest mammals.

Charles Crismon Mill (monument on east side of walkway 100 yards or so up City Creek): This was the first mill built in the valley. The mill stones are in the LDS Church History Museum. By the following year, other mills were started in various locations.

46. BRIGHAM YOUNG HISTORIC PARK (Southeast corner of State and North Temple Streets): This park is located on Brigham Young's original property. City Creek came through this corner property before splitting into two streams where the Church Office building is located. The canyon road followed the east bank of the creek. A remnant of Brigham's stone wall on the east side of that road is now part of the park. This one acre park is owned and maintained by the LDS Church and reflects life on the Young property in the mid-19th Century.

Brigham Young's Private School-Bransford Apartments-The Gate & Eagle Gate Apartments: Originally the site of Brigham Young's private school house, this corner was later developed by renowned Susanna Bransford, (known as the "Silver Queen"), who lived kitty-corner in the "Gardo House." Her Bransford Apartments, which cost $150,000 to build, included an elegant dining room, live-in cooks, and servants' quarters above every apartment. Bransford inherited her first husband Albion Emery's mining fortune (Park City) and went on to marry Chicago millionaire Edwin Holmes, Serbian doctor Radovan Delitch, and Russian prince Nicholas Engalitcheff. Her apartments were demolished in 1984 and the current structures, erected in the 1980s, are based loosely on the original design. Church presidents Kimball, Benson, Hunter, and Hinckley have lived here in the northern section (top floor, northwest corner). Underground tunnels connect the apartments with Temple Square and the church's Administration Building.

47. ALTA CLUB: Until recently a males-only club, this exclusive establishment was founded in 1883 by prominent non-Mormon businessmen and excluded Mormons, though William Jennings (Eagle Emporium and Devereaux fame) was allowed membership. The property was acquired from a daughter of Brigham. The building was built in 1897 and was accessed from State Street. (Women workers had to use a separate entrance.) Twelve years later, the east wing was added and the entrance changed to South Temple Street. Across the street to the west was the location of the old "Gardo" house.

48. OLD SALT LAKE CITY LIBRARY (now, Hansen Planetarium and Space Science Museum): This 1905 structure housed the territory's 1,000 volume library funded by the U.S. Congress. The city library was open one day per week. Today, science, star, and laser shows are presented mornings, afternoons, and evenings in a domed theater.

49. SOCIAL HALL: Beneath the glass frame, which is the size and shape of the original structure, are the stone foundation walls of the first theater west of the Missouri River. There is also a small historical exhibit showing construction tools, building techniques, and old photographs. Built in 1852, this Greek Revival playhouse seated 350. Tickets were purchased with gold dust, tithing scrip, and produce. City dances were held here and the entrance fees included a discount for additional wives.

The hall later housed the Latter-day Saint College, which evolved into the LDS Business College now located on South Temple. The hall was razed in 1922 as part of a $1 million commercial project featuring twenty-five automobile garages, showrooms, and workshops, which lined Social Hall Avenue through the 1950s. Automobile advertisements can still be seen painted on surrounding brick structures. (Old Deseret Village at This is the Place State Park has a replica of this building in use today.)

Clara Decker, Brigham's fourth polygamous wife and the one who came west with him in 1847, lived in a cottage just to the north.

50. OLD SALT LAKE THEATER LOCATION (northwest corner of 100 South and State Streets): This structure was added to the city when it became obvious that the Social Hall was much too small to handle theater goers. Church architect Truman Angell's protégé, William Folsom, designed the stately theater, using the Drury Lane Theatre in London as a model.

At the site where the D&RG Railroad Depot now stands, workers mixed clay from Salt Lake's east benches with straw and gravel to form bricks. Pine beams were dragged from Cottonwood Canyon, and iron was scavenged from the wreckage of government wagons on the Wyoming desert to make nails. Women were asked to spend their evenings whittling wooden pegs to hold the massive ceiling beams together. Hiram Clawson bought some $40,000 worth of building materials from Camp Floyd for a tenth of the original cost. Most every local family could boast some contribution to the theater's construction.

Completed in 1862 at a cost of about $100,000 the theater had seats for about 1,500 persons, more than 4 times the capacity of the Social Hall. Like the Tabernacle, the bell-shaped interior created an echo which had to be corrected-in this case with a flat ceiling. Folsom, like Angell, had no formal architectural training. (Both were also father-in-laws to Brigham Young.) The theater was the largest building in town at 80 by 144 feet. Three posts on either side of the stage each held three large kerosene lamps to illuminate the performance area, and 385 oil lamps blazed away in the hall. Stoves placed around the perimeter of the seating provided heat. Gas was installed in 1872 and the building wired for electricity in the 1890s.

Among those who had their moment in the Salt Lake Theater spotlight were P.T. Barnum, Billie Burke, Buffalo Bill Cody, Franny Davenport, Eddie Foy, Al Jolson, Edwin Booth, Lillian Russell, Oscar Wilde, and all of the Barrymores, including Ethel, John, Lionel, and Drew. The most famous local product was the beautiful, but enigmatic Maude Adams, the subject of the movie, "Somewhere in Time."

Like the Social Hall, entrance was paid in grain, eggs, and even needlework. Parents were discouraged from bringing babies, but when simple discouragement did not work, operators put up a sign that was more direct. "Babies in arms ten dollars extra." A front row-center rocking chair was reserved for Brigham Young. He once said: "A people need amusement as well as religion. "The theater was always popular but wasn't always financially solvent. At one juncture, it was saved only by the fact that its competition, the Walker Opera House, burned to the ground. Church President, Heber J. Grant pumped $10,000 of his own money into keeping it going as a place of wholesome entertainment, but it was a lost cause.

The newer Orpheum theaters were more popular. The adobe theater was torn down in 1929 to make way for a gas station. Public sentiment wanted the building preserved, but money was not available, and President Grant had spent his limit. The D.U.P. museum, completed in 1950, was designed inside and out to replicate this piece of pioneer history.

U.S. Mint: One of the 6 branch offices of the U.S. Mint is across the street to the south.

51. DESERET NEWS BUILDING (30 East 100 South): The current 82,720 squarefoot structure is the Wh facility for the venerable Deseret News and its weekly insert the Church News. The newspaper has been working at this location since 1968, but quarters were cramped and low-tech. The facility is modern, functional, and beautiful. The front curved glass, enclosing the grand spiral staircase was designed to represent or remind visitors of a large roller press used in the printing of the newspaper.

52. UTAH COMMERCIAL AND SAVINGS BANK (22 East 100 South): Designed by Richard Kletting (also designed the State Capitol and Karrick buildings) and constructed in 1890 for Francis Armstrong, mayor and bank founder, this building is one of the best and few remaining examples of Richardsonian Romanesque architecture in the city. It predates the city-county building, also Richardsonian Romanesque, by 4 years. Massive, columned, and arched, the red sandstone is designed to look old and weathered and resemble 14th century styling. As was common for commercial buildings, the sandstone façade hides a simpler brick structure. National Register.

53. DINWOODEY CABINET SHOP/Dinwoodey Plaza ( 37 West 100 South): Henry Dinwoodey, a Scottish immigrant with 3 wives, moved his business here in 1869. The original adobe building had 2 stories, but was expanded to 3 in 1873. The current 6-story structure, built in 1890, has a flat façade that unfortunately covers a wonderfully flamboyant Victorian front. Dinwoodeys became the most prominent furniture supply house in the Intermountain West, eventually employing 75 workers. Because of the demand for burial caskets, Dinwoodey doubled as an undertaker. (To the east was the two-story office of the Godbeites' Mormon Tribune (forerunner of The Salt Lake Tribune).

54. BENNETT GLASS AND PAINT COMPANY (65 West 100 South): The west section of this building was built in 1896 for the firm of Sears and Liddle. In 1921 John F. Bennett built the east section, matching and doubling the first bay, as is evident by the seam between the original building and expansion. Construction dates are engraved in the masonry. The company's skill in art glass manufacturing is evident in the building's leaded glass windows. Bennett's company was the largest paint and stained glass window producer in the state. Bennett also served as vice-president of ZCMI and vice-president of Utah State National Bank.

Go back and walk (south) through Dinwoodey Plaza. The mural on the Dinwoodey building is of Double Arch in Utah's Arches National Park. Exit through the southwest corner of the park and into the alley and turn right then left into the passageway through the building housing the Arrow Press building on your right.

55. ARROW PRESS BUILDING (165 South West Temple Street): The Tribune Reporter Printing Company, later called Arrow Press, erected this building in 1890. Continue south to 200 South Street.

56. CITY'S FIRST POWER PLANT (on your left where the current Utah Power & Light substation is located): Salt Lake City was the fifth city in the world to generate electricity, after London, New York, San Francisco, and Cleveland. D.C. electric power was generated for the new trolley cars, which made their inaugural run, Aug. 17, 1889.

57. ORPHEUM/CAPITOL THEATER (50 West 200 South): Constructed in 1913 by the Orpheum vaudeville theater chain, this stage opened 8 years after its sister Orpheum (Promised Valley Playhouse) two blocks east on State Street. A 1909 marquee spanned the width of 200 South Street from sidewalk to sidewalk, and can now be found at the north entrance to Trolley Square. The interior was renovated in 1927 for motion pictures, then restored in 1967 to house the Utah Opera Company, Ballet West, Ririe- Woodbury Modern Dance Company, and Repertory Dance Theater. National Register. (The Walker Brothers built an opera house between here and their store on Main Street. It burned down.)

58. BERTOLINI BUILDING (145 West 200 South Street): Constructed in 1892 for Ignazio Bertolini, a prominent Italian real estate developer, has been occupied by various Italian, Greek, Russian, and Japanese businesses including a barber shop, restaurant, pool hall, organ grinder, and a variety of grocery stores. The rectangular plan, with the narrow end facing the street, was typical of small commercial buildings of the 1890s. National Register.

59. HOTEL VICTOR (155 West 200 South Street): Built in 1910 for Katherine Belcher, this 3- story building operated as a hotel into the 1960s. Italian immigrants Alphonso Scovelli and Joseph Fratello operated a saloon on the main floor for a decade or so. The Denver Fire-Clay manufactured fire brick and high-temperature clay and sold industrial furnaces and equipment during the next two decades. The highly detailed façade combines a variety of motifs and has a high-contrast color scheme. In the basement is the Green Parrot private club where a Mr. Riordan was killed by the infamous "Preppie Bandits." National Register.

60. PATRICK BUILDING (163 West 200 South): This 5-story building was erected in 1914 and housed the Decker-Patrick Company which was later renamed Patrick Dry Goods Company. The firm is still in business providing wholesale fabric to retailers. Note the building's projecting cornice, striking color contrast, and interesting variation in window treatment.

61. SMITH-BAILEY DRUG COMPANY-First Commercial Center (175 West 200 South): The Syndicate Investment Company constructed this "up-to-date modern warehouse" in 1908 for $71,000. Most striking is the amount of glass and the arrangement of windows. It bragged of being built with "fire-proof" steel, freight elevators, and vaults.

62. SWEET CANDY COMPANY (224 South 200 West Street): Westside Development Associates LLC is purchasing the property and planned to develop it into condominiums after the Sweet Candy Company finished its new building and moved out. This would have been the third condo project by Westside Development (Salt Lake Stamp and J.G. McDonald's - visible from here - are the first two, respectively). Plans changed in 2000, probably because of added housing in the Gateway Project and a downturn in the economy. The demand at the projected price disappeared and the building will probably become office space.

63. SALT LAKE STAMP "Dakota Lofts" (Northeast corner, 200 South and 400 West Streets): Westside Development Associates LLC began their entry into the downtown condominium by converting this building into 36 units, ranging in price from $85,000 to $350,000. The developers see a demand for units that can be owned, rather than rented. The first residents moved in December, 1997.

64. CRANE BUILDING (307 West 200 South Street): The Chicago-based Crane Company manufactured industrial valves and fittings, including beer barrel bushings and fire hydrants. The company constructed this 5-story box-shaped commercial building in 1910 in the city's warehouse district with the latest technology including "fireproof" construction and a steel frame wall-bearing system. The Westgate Business Center across the street to the northwest is a renovated warehouse of the same vintage.

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